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中間報告1 [Social Policy]

これまで,ユニークな立場から提言を行ってきましたが,今は,残念ながら,医療供給体制の管理下に入っています.

私の実像をご存知のお方は,コンタクトをお寄せいただければ,幸いです.


Bullying(いじめ) vs Violence(暴行)の区別 [Social Policy]

アメリカでは「いじめ」と「暴行」をそれなりに区別しています.

訳しにくいので原文のままにしますが,ご参考までに掲載しました.
広く読まれることを期待した文書ですから,著作権の問題は生じませんから,ご自由にご活用下さい.
なお,日本では,曖昧に,「喧嘩」は暴行を含んでも「いじめ」とは見なさないことになっています.

今回の大津の事件を巡って,長い学校生活の中で,滋賀県警がある一回の出来事だけを取り上げて云々するのは可笑しいのではないかと考えてこの文章を書いています.

下記の文章中でも,Violence is against the law, while bullying generally isn't, more people accept bullying as a normal part of life. bullyingViolence とは区別されているところにご注目下さい.

いじめに関わる自殺が4,400人にも及ぶといわれるアメリカで,それでも.
more people accept bullying as a normal part of life という受け止め方は,さすがなによりも自由を尊重するアメリカならではと感嘆します.

それに引き替え,日本では,たった1回の競技場での仲間内児童の出来事を取り上げ,実地検証したとして,「暴行」で書類送致しようというのは,いかにも取って付けたような愚行だと思われてなりません.
イジメはあくまで児童自殺の一因に過ぎないのです.もっと多角的に調べないでおいて,なんとなく「暴行」で決着を付けようというのは,警察権力には絶対に許されないことです.上記の通り,Violence is against the law, while bullying generally isn't ですから,明確な区分を間違えないように望みます.

まあ,一流国と2流から3流国に転落目前の国を比較して論じても,ほとんど意味のないことかも知れませんが...

それにしても,大津市長といい,滋賀県警といい,既に裁判所の審理が始まっている問題で,今頃になって何をごそごそと問題を蒸し返しているのでしょう.

警察はまだ夏休みを使って捜査しましたが,これから学校や生徒を聴取しようと身構えている調査委員会は,何の権限,根拠でどうやって聞き取りをするのでしょう.設置条例を作って権限を認めたならともかく,設置要綱では,広く学生や市民に対してなんの権限も持たないはずです.

そういえば,委員会の正式名称は第三者委員会にしたそうですが,訴訟原告の言いなりになって作った委員会,それも3人+3人の筈の所を,原告側弁護士のクレームで1人が辞退して,2人+3人になって,よくもまあ第三者と称するモノですね!

イジメ側,学校側,自殺側と等距離を保つのでない限り,第三者などとはまったくおこがましい限りです.

依然として週刊誌や新聞で,学校や教育委員会を締め付ける議論が横行していますが,ぜひぜひmore people accept bullying as a normal part of life に近づいて,もっともっと自由闊達な学校から,オリジナリティ,独創性,進取の気性に富んだ学生が巣立つようになり,わが国の技術水準,経営水準,ひいては生産性を向上させて,失われた20年を取り戻し,輝かしい未来を創造してくれることを強く期待するモノです.

 

 

Bullying vs Violence

Bullying vs Violence - there can be a fine line in the difference of bullying and violence. This article offers commonalities of violence and bullying, and compares differences in bullying vs violence. Get tips for reducing bullying and violence.
Though bullying is often considered a form of physical or psychological violence, bullying has some different root causes than other types of violence, and also may require different prevention strategies. Let's compare bullying vs violence for a better understanding.

 

Violence may be defined as doing harm to another, whether physical or mental. Under this definition, bullying would be considered a form of violence. Comparatively, bullying is different from other types of violence, however, because it usually occurs when one person or group of people singles out another person with the intent of being mean through:

 

  • Name-calling
  • Teasing
  • Pushing
  • Hitting
  • Threatening
  • Spreading rumors
  • Playing mean practical jokes
  • Social exclusion

 

Bullying behavior is usually repeated over a period of time until it becomes a pattern. Victims often feel helpless and unable to fight back or defend themselves.

 

Bullying may take place in person or through electronic media devices, and may be direct or indirect, in comparison violence is always physical. While boys are more likely to engage in violence and in physical bullying, girls are more likely to bully through indirect methods like spreading rumors and purposefully excluding others. Bullying is usually worst during the middle school years, though it can occur from elementary school through high school and beyond into college and the workplace.

 

Bullying versus Violence:

 

  • While violence and violent crimes have generally been decreasing in America, bullying has not.
  • Violence is against the law, while bullying generally isn't unless it crosses the line into harassment or assault.
  • Though violence is generally seen as an unacceptable type of behavior, more people accept bullying as a normal part of life.

Among teens, where violence and bullying are most common, violence is often linked to gangs, drugs, an impoverished neighborhood with fewer perceived opportunities, poor attachment to school, and poor academic accomplishment. Boys are much more likely to be involved in violence than girls. Bullying, on the other hand, is based on individuals, who may be boys or girls, but are often those who feel a need to be powerful and in control. Bullying victims may be students who do not know how to stand up to bullies.

 

School violence is often addressed by trying to reduce gang involvement, drug use, poor academic achievement, and anger management problems among students. Bullying requires different strategies. Other students may think bullying is normal or not know how to stand up to bullies, so education is an important prevention strategy for bullying, as is taking bullying seriously and instituting a zero-tolerance policy.

 

Despite their differences, there are strong links between bullying and violence. Both bullies and their victims are more likely to engage in other violent behavior. Victims generally suffer from depression and low self-esteem and may lash out violently, while bullies are more likely than others to engage in violent criminal behavior. Both violence and bullying can cause students to be afraid and to skip school.

 

Some common factors of that may contribute to bullying and violence are:

 

  • Severe physical punishments used at home
  • Lack of parental involvement
  • Lack of knowledge about positive ways to deal with problems

 

Addressing these problems with positive parenting and by teaching problem solving skills and anger management could help reduce violence and bullying among some teens.

 

Sources:

Earnestine Bennett-Johnson, "The Root of School Violence: Causes and Recommendations for a Plan of Action," abstract from Education Resources Information Center [online]

Educational Resources Information Center, "Bullying in Schools. ERIC Digest." [online]
Valerie Strauss, The Washington Post, "Bullying, Thefts Persist Despite Drop in Violence" [online]
Virginia Youth Violence Project, "Research on Bullying" [online]
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH News Release, "Bullies, Victims at Risk for Violence and Other Problem Behaviors" [online]

いじめは犯罪か?直前のブログへの追記を別掲 [Social Policy]

追記:-

大津市長が設置した調査委員会の25日の初会合では、大津市の越 直美市長が、男子生徒の遺族から預かった手紙を読み上げた.
越市長は「学校内部で起きていた事実の全てを白日の下にさらし、真相の解明をしていただければ幸いです」と遺族の手紙を読み上げた.

と報じられていました.

ここで不可解なのは,裁判所への損害賠償訴訟(約7700万円)では,男子生徒の遺族はこの損害賠償訴訟の原告で,大津市長は市の代表者として訴訟の連帯責任被告だという事実です.

構図としては,連帯責任被告の片割れが,原告の要求に応えて調査委員会を作り,その人選まで原告の要求通りとし,調査委員会の責務まで原告の手紙を代読して明示したというのですから,まったく奇怪な話です.連帯責任被告のイジメ児童の親側は,まったくの聾桟敷です

これって,まったく奇妙な構図ですね.損害賠償訴訟の原告と連帯責任被告の一方だけが馴れ合っているというのは奇怪です.

市長としての本来の責務は,幸い弁護士でもあった人ですから,相手方の損害賠償請求額を理想的にはゼロまで値切って踏み倒すことにあるはずですが,やっていることはまったく正反対ですね.
市長はもともと和解を申し出たはずですが,ここまで無視され,除け者にされた連帯責任被告人の同意なしでは,市長限りの和解は成立しないでしょう

こんな市長では,結局は損害賠償金を調査委員会経費400万円と共に住民税で負担しなければならなくなりそうな大津市民は,共同連帯責任被告人と共に,いい迷惑ではありませんか.

市民の代表である市議会は,この辺の矛盾をもっと厳しく追及すべきではありませんか.

民事訴訟の焦点は,学校側の「自殺予見可能性」と「自殺児童の親の自殺予防対応の程度」の2点
なのです.

学校内部で起きていた事実の全てを白日の下にさらし、真相の解明を期しても,いじめは自殺の一因に過ぎないのです.そして調査は学校側,それも教師達の意識の内面にかかわる「自殺予見可能性」には,ほとんど踏み込みようがないでしょうし,「自殺児童の親の自殺予防対応の程度」は,まったく審議の論外だとすると,何も明らかに出来ないではありませんか.

これでは損害賠償訴訟の連帯責任被告として,市側の弁護士の役に立つようなことは何も期待できないではありませんか.

原告の希望に沿ったことをやっていけば,原告は請求賠償額を引き下げてくれるに違いないとでも安易に考えているとしたら,まことにお目出度い話です.
また,学校内部で起きていた事実の全てを白日の下にさらしたら,いじめがなくなるとでも考えているのだとしたら,それもまったく甘い認識というべきです.
そもそも真相の解明という真相とは何なのでしょう.イジメは自殺の一因でしかないのですから,学校内部で起きていた事実の全てを白日の下にさらしても,まったく真相に迫れるとは考えられないのです.

市長は,原告のためではなく,もっと被告として,市民の身になって,大津市の負担ゼロをこそ志向すべきではないのでしょうか.


イジメは犯罪か?アメリカを参照:Should bullies be treated as criminals?:追記 [Social Policy]

アメリカでは学校は決して安全な場所ではなくなっているという表現に驚きます.そして,いくつもの州でbullying を犯罪として刑罰の対象にしようという試みが続いているそうです.1年間の自殺児童数が4,400人にも上ると,何とかしたいと考えるのでしょう.
現在は48州がThe Anti-bullying Lawを定めて,主として初等.中等教育に責任を持つ全米で13,000以上あるSchool Districts,に各州で統一した取り扱いを求めているに止まるのです.

因みに,日本の文部科学省によると,平成19年度に自殺した136人の児童のうち、いじめが原因であると特定されたものは3件で18年度よりも3件少ない,とあります.隠れた実数はもっと多いという指摘はありますが,アメリカとはたいへん大きな差異ですね.それにしても,原因をイジメに特定した経緯がよく分かりませんが....

Recent federal statistics show that school has never been a safer place but that bullying remains a persistent problem: The U.S. Department of Education's most recent school crime and safety survey showed that from 2005 to 2009, 28% of middle- and high-school students reported having been bullied in school, and 6% said they were victims of cyberbullying, even as the number of students who said they'd been victims of theft or violent crime dropped.(最後尾に統計表が添付してあります)

しかし,アメリカで自殺に至ったBullying を犯罪と認めることには,いくつもの異論があるのです.
そのなかで注目されるのは,自殺した児童の親の側が,必ずしも,自分と類似した境遇の両親を再生したくはないという意見があるそうです
she told police she didn't want anyone going to jail for K.J.'s death. "I just didn't want somebody else's family to suffer," she said Monday.

自殺児童の逸失利益をイジメた側や教育機関に請求するというのも,アメリカでは聞かれないことです.それは自殺の場合,逸失利益の概念になじまないと考えるからですし,前述のアメリカの初等・中等教育を担う独立自治体で全米に13,000以上もある学校区には,大きな予定外支出の余力などまったくないからです.
(オーストラリアでは包括的自治体の教育機関に請求して稀にNegligenceとして認定された事例がありますが.なかでも有名な例として,10歳未満の2人の児童のイジメを,最高裁が逆転判決で認めた例があります.)

この論文"Should bullies be treated as criminals?"では,加害者の親に厳しい意見が展開されています.
いじめ学生 を作ったのは,その家庭だと論じられているのです.
Chambers said parents need to be held accountable for their children's hateful behavior. "A lot of people don't understand: These kids learned it from home."

しかし,これは自殺を招くいじめを犯罪としていじめ児童を処罰することへの,有力な反対論なのです.「自分達がイジメ児童を育てた覚えはないと言い切れる両親がどれほどいるのでしょうか?

いずれにしても,児童の自殺に至るイジメを犯罪行為と認めて立法化している州はないのです.それは「イジメ」が100%「自殺」の原因と認める議論は成り立たず.あくまでその一因に過ぎないと位置づけされるからです.

日本では,いとも簡単に「いじめは犯罪です」,といわれますが,それはきわめていい加減な表現で,「いじめ」に含まれる暴行,傷害,脅迫,器物損壊,侮辱,名誉毀損などなどが刑法の規定する犯罪に当てはまる,というだけで,「いじめ」そのものが刑法に犯罪として規定されている訳ではないのです.百歩譲っていい加減な表現で「いじめ」は犯罪といっても,「喧嘩」はそれに当てはまらないというのですから,ほとんど選別困難で,実際に,犯罪行為として警察が出動する例はごくごく稀です.

大津の事件では,「殺人者」とか「人殺し」とかびっくりするような言葉が飛び交っていますが,なぜ,イジメをストレートに自殺と結びつけるのでしょうか.
アメリカではイジメで「自殺」を考えた100人の内1人しか実際には自殺していないといわれます

大津市では教育行政を巡って,教育委員会と新任市長とが権限争いを起こして混乱し,市長は,本来調査目的以外には一切使わないと歌って記入されたはずのアンケートを,学校や教育委員会に公表させ,別に,新たな調査委員会を作るそうですが,そこに訴訟当事者の一方だけに何か注文を付けさせるのは異常で,非常識で,不公正きわまります.

自殺児童の親の訴訟や告訴について「イジメをなくすのに役立てたい」といった美辞麗句が表現されていますが,世界的な例を見ても,「いじめ」が隠れて陰湿化することはあっても,「いじめ」がなくなることなどあり得ないでしょう.
「いじめ」についてそんな安易な認識の親がいたとしたら,児童の自殺予防にどれだけ正しい関心があったのか大いに疑われます.

市長は調査委員会を教育委員会にではなく市長直属で置くようですが,その設置の根拠が明らかでありません,本来なら,設置条例をきちんと制定し,調査権も明記してやるべきです.要綱を設定して,調査委員に調査員を付けて調査に当たらせるそうですが,要綱だけでは調査権限の根拠はゼロではありませんか.

市長は,既に損害賠償訴訟に和解を申し出ており,調査委員会に和解条件の根拠付けを求めたいようですが,委員の選任に訴訟当事者の一方だけの意見を取り入れた調査委員会の勧告に基づく和解条件では,裁判所や被訴訟人,市民,議会の承認を得られる見通しは限りなく低いのではありませんか.

自殺児童の親側は,「いじめ」と「自殺」の因果関係に踏み込んだ市の調査委員会審議を望んだそうですが,それは,全然,筋違いで,しかも無理な話です.
何故なら,アメリカで自殺を招くイジメを犯罪として法律化しようとしても出来ないでいるのは,どこまでいっても「イジメ」は自殺の一因としか認めようがないからです.

せいぜい出来ることは,自殺に追い込まれようとする児童の内面の悩みに寄り添って,自殺を押しとどめることですが,調査では,今回,何故それが出来なかったかを実親,親族そして学校関係者について明らかにし,広く自殺予防に役立てることを期待します.
換言していえば,調査委員会は,何故,自殺児童が,アメリカの例で現実に自殺を考える100人のうち,それを実際に実行する1人に入ってしまったのかを,きちんと調べるべきです.

イジメ児童の親がイジメ児童を育成したとしても,自殺児童の親が一方的な被害者で善意の第三者ないし傍観者でよかった筈はないのです.大津市庁舎に親が児童の遺影を持参したという報道に,耳を疑いました.自分も関係者で児童の自殺に責任の一端があるとは,まったく考え及ばなかったのでしょうか.

調査委員会でも,訴訟審理でも,あくまで「いじめ」は自殺の一因に過ぎないという世界の常識的理解を前提に審議・審理されることを切に期待するものです.

参考までに,これまでの日本における判例では,「自殺予見可能性」(上記オーストラリアの例でNegligence)の有無という形で,学校側の責任を否定している場合があり,自殺した児童の親(原告)が適切な自殺予防の対応を取らなかった場合,0~10/10といった責任割合を認定して,賠償や慰謝料を否定ないし割引いています.
つまり,民事訴訟の焦点は,学校側の「自殺予見可能性」と「自殺児童の親の自殺予防対応の程度」の2点なのです.

1例を挙げますと,葬式ごっこの色紙に教師が4人も署名していたことで有名な東京都中野区富士見中学校の自殺事件(1986)で,東京高裁はいじめと自殺の因果関係を認定しながら,学校側の予見不可能として,自殺損害への賠償は否認し,東京都,中野区,いじめ児童の両親に,慰謝料1000万円+弁護士費用の支払いを命ずるに止まりました.

大津の事例でも,教師の軽々しい発言からすると,どう見ても,自殺の可能性を予見していたとは考えられないのではないでしょうか.事の善悪や過失の有無ではなく,判例に見るとおり.認識がなかった者に責任を負わせることは出来ないだろうということです.教師は聖職者だとか専門職者だとか勝手なイメージを押しつけても,始まらないでしょう.
また,「自殺児童の親の自殺予防対応の程度」は,これまでのその言動,とくに自分は全くの被害者,犠牲者だという言動を見る限り,ほとんどゼロだったのではないでしょうか.

この2点は,「イジメ児童」の処遇にも,決定的な重要性を持つと考えます.
学校側の「自殺予見可能性」がきわめて低く,自殺児童の親の自殺予防対応がほとんどゼロだったとすれば,「イジメ児童」だけが不利益な処遇を受ける理由は限りなく乏しいと考えられるからです.

他方では,今回,刑法上の暴行行為を警察が認定して,家宅捜索で内部文書の筈のアンケートを押収し,教師,児童からの聴取に入ったようですが,それは日本の警察がよくやる別件捜査・捜索(別件,この場合競技場での児童拘束,暴行を掲げて,本星は「いじめ」と「自殺」の因果関係を捜索するという全然不公正な日本的やり方)をやっているもので,もし,そこから実際に「いじめ」と「自殺」の因果関係を判断するとしたら,既に司法の民事訴訟審理が始まっている事案について,行政警察の違憲といえる越権行為になるのではと考えます.
警察は捜査機関に過ぎないのですから,捜査資料を検察庁や家庭裁判所,児童相談所等に送る権能しか持ち合わせていないはずです.少年や児童にかかわる内容の漏洩が許されないのは.いうまでもありません.

聴取している児童のなかには,裁判所の証人として喚問される可能性がある児童も含まれるだろうことを,警察はどう考えているのでしょう.弁護側が,児童の法廷証言は事前に警察に誘導された可能性があると争ったら,どう対応するのでしょうか...

とにかくこの事件は,自分の児童保護責任を棚上げして100%被害者ぶった自殺児童の親とマスコミと野次馬連が合体したところに,客観性,独立性を放擲して警察も市長もすんなり乗ってしまったことで,必要以上に問題を巨大化,複雑化,長期化させてしまったと考えるものです.

特に校内アンケート(本来外部に公表しないという守秘義務を歌って記入されたはずのモノ)の公表は,今後,全国的に学校や教育委員会の調査活動を著しく困難にしたと思われます.市長は3時間も教育長と膝詰め談判をして,敢えて公開させたそうですが,これは独立した行政委員会の教育行政に対する市長の明らかな越権行為です.

さらに,教育委員会は自殺児童の親の問題を提起しているのに,市長がこれを理由説明なしで無視し,調査委員会にも触れさせないとしているのは,まったく理解に苦しみます.
市長自身がいじめられっ子だったそうですが,まるで自分の体験をここに投影させているかのようですしかし今回の自殺児童の親の言動に偏向した不公正な取り扱いは,やがて市議会からも説明要求があるでしょうし,その如何では,市議会に調査委員会経費支出(なんと400万円弱だそうですが)を否認されかねず,市長の和解条件(恐らくはある程度の支出を伴なう)も否認されかねません.

弁護士資格も経験も重ねた市長がいったん行った和解の意思表示は,当初は,事態の早期終結を願ったものとして理解できましたが,その市長が一転して事態解決の見通しをすっかり先送りしてしまったのは,いったい何故でしょう.それではまるで偏向した職権濫用ではありませんか.

そもそも市長には,イジメ児童の親と大津市とは,損害賠償訴訟の訴訟被告人として連帯共同責任を負っているという認識があるのでしょうか?
市長が責務として守るべきは,訴訟人,自殺児童の親ではなくって,連帯共同責任者である大津市を含めた賠償訴訟被告人ではないのですか.

ことさらの引き延ばしによって,何よりも,長期に亘って,イジメ児童のみならず,傍観児童,垣間見児童等多数の児童を,本来,外部に漏れないと考えて記入したアンケートを基に,入れ替わり立ち替りの調査,聴取にさらして,不安な心理状態に据え置くことのそれぞれの児童の一生に亘る大きな大きなマイナス面を考えると,膨らみ続ける大人達関係者のエゴイズムとスタンドプレイに,たいへん心が痛みます.

終わりに,念のためいいたいことは自分の息子の自殺を止められなかった親が,懸命になって演出しようとしているいわば「復讐劇」のステージに,マスコミ報道後から関与してきた市長,滋賀県警,調査委員会は,過去の経験にとらわれず,決して乗るべきではないということです.
過去の出来事への復讐は,将来に向かって何ものも生み出すものではないからです.

これまでの経緯で既に必要以上に心を傷つけられてきた児童のさらなる犠牲は,もう誰も望むところではないというべきではないでしょうか.

なお,アメリカでは,常時,約1000人の教師が担任を外されて,待機中だといわれていること,他方では,約16万人もの児童がいじめを回避すべく通学を控えていること,を付言しておきます.

日本でも.もっともっとイジメを避ける怠学が増えれば,マスコミの無責任な特定児童問題の巨大化以上に,学校,教育委員会,文部科学省に,いっそう真剣な対応を迫ることになるのではないでしょうか
日本で怠学の増大が見られないのは,自殺志向に近づいた児童の親の学校任せから来る不注意,無関心からではないでしょうか.今回の大津市の事例が,全国的に,学童の親の児童への関心の向上に役立てば,一抹の救いになるのではないでしょうか.
そのためには,文部科学省が,学校は決して安全なところではないと,アメリカのように警告を発したら良いのではないでしょうか.
イジメ問題でいたずらに学校や学童を萎縮させるより,もっと親に責任を持たせた方が,問題の緩和と学園の自由闊達な雰囲気の助長に大きく寄与すると考えるモノです.

付言しますと,市長やマスコミから一方的に批判されてきた教育長が,他県から来た大学生の無分別な一撃に大怪我をされたことは,まことにお気の毒なことです.
ここまで,児童自殺の一因に止まる問題を一方的な悪玉vs善玉の構図として不必要に巨大化させてしまった市長やマスコミを初めとする関係者に,大いなる反省を求めたいと考えます.

 

 

Should bullies be treated as criminals?

 

What can be done?

Recent federal statistics show that school has never been a safer place but that bullying remains a persistent problem: The U.S. Department of Education's most recent school crime and safety survey showed that from 2005 to 2009, 28% of middle- and high-school students reported having been bullied in school, and 6% said they were victims of cyberbullying, even as the number of students who said they'd been victims of theft or violent crime dropped. About one in 16 students surveyed said he or she was bullied at school "almost every day." Among seventh-graders, nearly one in 10 was bullied every day.

As in many bullying cases, Phoebe's suicide raised questions about how effective her school had been in keeping her safe. In the fall of 2009, Phoebe, a recent immigrant from Ireland, and her mother talked to school counselors about Phoebe's bullying difficulties in Ireland.

Rosalind Wiseman, the author of the 2002 book Queen Bees & Wannabes, a bestseller about teen girls' relationships that was the basis of the movie Mean Girls, said the district attorney in Phoebe's case "chose very carefully" how she charged the teens. "What I wish she had done was hold the adults responsible."

Wiseman met with teens at Phoebe's school after the suicide and found that quite a few "were really jaded" about the case. "Certainly the adults created the culture in which (bullying) was allowed to thrive." A consultant to schools trying to address bullying, Wiseman said students often tell her that administrators turn a blind eye to complaints if eyewitnesses aren't present. She regularly meets parents who "get crazy-angry" because their kids' bullying complaints go unheeded.

"They feel like they're sending their child into a system that's supposed to keep them safe, but it's actually the biggest risk to their child's safety," she said.

Though Phoebe's case didn't send anyone to prison, it had the intended effect, said Cole, the Massachusetts attorney. None of the six students returned to the school. The case "definitely acts as a deterrent to others." Cole and other civil rights experts worry about dragging too many young people into court, but he says, "There absolutely are times when you need to get the criminal justice system involved."

K.J.'s mother, Jeannie Chambers, isn't so sure. Though police and the county prosecutor won't talk about the case, Chambers says she doubts anyone will be charged. In fact, she told police she didn't want anyone going to jail for K.J.'s death. "I just didn't want somebody else's family to suffer," she said Monday.

Four classmates were disciplined for anti-gay bullying directed at K.J. before his death. Chambers said that she believes their behavior directly contributed to his suicide but that the four have already been subjected to withering criticism from classmates. Chambers told police she hoped the students received counseling, not jail time. "I didn't want somebody else to — how do I say it? — go through what my son went through."

Echoing Hall's proposed legislation, Chambers said parents need to be held accountable for their children's hateful behavior. "A lot of people don't understand: These kids learned it from home."

 

続きを読む


社会保障と(消費)税との一体改革の虚実 [Social Policy]

2012年度の消費税収は,国税4%と地方税1%を合わせて13兆円です.

さらに国税分の29.5%が地方交付税交付金に回りますから,国分は56.4%,7.3兆円にとどまります.

他方,消費税を充てると公言されている,基礎年金,老人医療介護は,今年度予算15.1兆円で,これは毎年1兆円の規模で膨張しています.

今回,難産の末,社会保障と税の一体改革が成立してしまいましたが,「近いうち」の総選挙では,民主党は最大政党の座をおそらく10中8,9の確率で滑り落ちるでしょう.その場合,消費税引き上げの時期が先送りされる可能性もあると考えます.

前にも書きましたが,「社会保障と税の一体改革」というスローガンは,ほとんど意味のないものだと思うのです.
何故なら,消費税を引き上げた増収分は,その分だけこれまで社会保障に回っていた国税をフリーにしますから,それを公共事業その他の国の事業に回す事が可能になる訳で,消費税を社会保障に回すというのはまやかしもいいところです..

そもそもわが国には,GDPの200%という国債発行残高があり,これは先進国中最高の数字です.そのため,毎年の予算のほとんど1/4の24.3%(債務償還費13.4%+利払費等10.9%)がこの借金の償還と利払いに費消されているのです.

因みに,EU諸国では,国債残高をGDPの5%以内に抑制することを目標としているのです.ギリシャ,スペイン,イタリアが厳しい金融査定を受けて,公務員費や社会保障費の緊縮に追い込まれているのは,高い国債残高の故なのです.

日本の場合,国債発行額の95%が国内で保有されているので,海外から売りたたかれる心配はないというのですが,国内保有額の相当部分は,景気低迷で優良投資先に事欠いている日本の金融機関が保有しているといわれます.

その状況では,もし日本の長期金利が何らかのキッカケ(たとえば成長率が低迷する失われた20年が30年,40年に及ぶ予測が強まって)で高騰しますと,固定金利の国債の価格は暴落する危険があります.そうなると大量の国債を保有にする日本の金融機関の財務体質は一挙に悪化し,格下げの嵐に襲われるでしょう.それはギリシャの例に見るように,日本経済の破綻に連なります.

長期的に考えますと,当面,日本政府がやるべきことは,ひたすら異常に高い国債残高を縮小させることにあると思われます.

社会保障はツケを将来に回して存立しているといわれますが,実は将来にツケを回している最大の元凶は,将来,返還を迫られる国債にあるというべきなのです.

この状況下で「社会保障と税の一体改革」が強行されましたが,消費税の引き上げは3%にしろ5%にせよ,当然に,国民消費を抑制しますから,,それを回避すべく価格上昇を生産性向上で吸収できない中小企業は,販売額の縮小→経営破綻に見舞われかねません.

既に,相当数の大企業の下請け企業が,大企業諸共アジア諸国に進出している実態がありますが,消費税引き上げは,さらに日本の生産業の国内空洞化を招くことに連なるでしょう.

失われた20年は取り返しようがありませんが,少なくとも将来に向けて生産性を向上させ,国内産業が海外と対等に競争する力を涵養し,GDPを継続的に成長させていくのでないと,日本の国債債務残高は急速には減らしようがないでしょう.

「社会保障と(消費)税の一体改革」は,容易に,「社会保障と国家財政」の緊縮を迫られる事態に直結しかねないことを,たいへん危惧するものです.


IMF Report on Japanese Economy [Social Policy]

前にもご紹介したことのあるIMF Report の最新版が出ましたので,ご紹介します.

ご参考までに,要点だけをピックアップして,原文のままご紹介しますので,あとはご自由にご渉猟下さい.なお,下に主要指標が表示されていますから,ご参照下さい.

Real GDP contracted by ¾ percent in 2011, because of the earthquake and Thai floods, but a recovery is now underway. Real GDP grew at a brisk pace of 4¾ percent (seasonally adjusted annual rate) in the first quarter boosted by reconstruction spending, a pickup in private consumption, and inventory rebuilding. Headline inflation was negative at -0.2 percent (year-on-year) in June and core inflation, excluding food and energy, was also negative at -0.6 percent (year-on year).

The trade balance moved into deficit in 2011 (1/3 percent of GDP), the first annual deficit recorded since 1980. Exports were impacted by the supply chain disruptions, weak global demand and an appreciation of the yen. At the same time, imports have risen, driven by reconstruction spending and higher energy costs following the closure of most nuclear power plants.

Since mid-2011, equity prices have declined by about 15 percent and yields on 10-year Japanese Government Bonds (JGBs) have fallen to near historic lows of 70-80 basis points. Over the same period, the yen has appreciated by about 8 percent in nominal effective terms.

Over the medium-term, growth is expected to converge to around 1 percent as Japan’s aging population slows potential growth..

Japan’s fiscal deficit is set to increase to about 10 percent of GDP in 2012, while the structural primary deficit will rise slightly to 7½ percent of GDP. In an important step toward medium-term fiscal consolidation, the Lower House of the Diet approved a tax bill in late June that would increase the consumption tax to 8 percent in April 2014 and 10 percent in October 2015. The Upper House is now considering the bill. If implemented and added to already planned expenditure measures, the overall reduction in the structural fiscal deficit would be about 5 percent of GDP over the next decade.

The adoption in February of a medium to long-term price stability goal of 1 percent has helped clarify the objective of monetary policy. In addition, the BoJ expanded its Asset Purchase Program by ¥15 trillion this year in two steps and extended the maturity of JGB purchases from 1–2 years to 1–3 years. Together with earlier commitments this is a sizeable monetary expansion, totaling about 5 percent of GDP over the next year.

The adoption in February of a medium to long-term price stability goal of 1 percent has helped clarify the objective of monetary policy. In addition, the BoJ expanded its Asset Purchase Program by ¥15 trillion this year in two steps and extended the maturity of JGB purchases from 1–2 years to 1–3 years. Together with earlier commitments this is a sizeable monetary expansion, totaling about 5 percent of GDP over the next year.

The Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) update found that important steps have been taken to strengthen the financial system since the last assessment in 2003. In particular, financial regulation and supervision has been effective in encouraging the large banks and insurance companies to strengthen their capital positions and resilience to shocks.

the key challenges financial institutions face in safeguarding financial stability are to raise profitability in a low growth environment, while managing risk associated with their JGB and equity holdings.

Directors saw risks to the outlook tilted to the downside and primarily stemming from the possibility of a further escalation of the crisis in Europe and a sharper than expected slowing of the Chinese economy. Directors agreed that, beyond the short term, the main challenge is to reduce the public debt burden in an environment of low growth and address continued deflation and the impact of a rapidly aging population.

banks’ low profitability and large holdings of Japanese government securities raise some concerns and should be monitored closely.

要するに,銀行が大量の国債を保有した状況では,現在の低金利政策のなかで,いったん金利上昇が生ずると,国債価格は暴落し,日本の金融機関の信頼性は一挙に失われかねず,第2,第3のギリシャ,スペインの状況に陥る可能性を否定できないというのです.
それを防ぐ手段としては,消費税10%では不足で,もっと社会保障をも削減して,いっそうの財政健全化を図らなければならないという状態に日本経済が置かれているのではないか.と警鐘を鳴らしているといえます.

日本の国債残高は,既に,実に,GDPの200%に達しているのです.

 

IMF Executive Board Concludes 2012 Article IV Consultation with Japan

Public Information Notice (PIN) No. 12/92
August 1, 2012

Public Information Notices (PINs) form part of the IMF's efforts to promote transparency of the IMF's views and analysis of economic developments and policies. With the consent of the country (or countries) concerned, PINs are issued after Executive Board discussions of Article IV consultations with member countries, of its surveillance of developments at the regional level, of post-program monitoring, and of ex post assessments of member countries with longer-term program engagements. PINs are also issued after Executive Board discussions of general policy matters, unless otherwise decided by the Executive Board in a particular case. The staff report (use the free Adobe Acrobat Reader to view this pdf file) for the 2012 Article IV Consultation with Japan is also available.

On July 25, 2012, the Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) concluded the Article IV consultation with Japan.1

Background

The Japanese economy has shown remarkable resilience and adaptability in the aftermath of the March 2011 Great East Japan earthquake. In addition to the devastating human toll and destruction, businesses and households had to grapple with disruptions to supply-chains, reductions in electricity supply, and spillovers from severe floods in Thailand in late 2011, which impacted Japan’s export sector.

Real GDP contracted by ¾ percent in 2011, because of the earthquake and Thai floods, but a recovery is now underway. Real GDP grew at a brisk pace of 4¾ percent (seasonally adjusted annual rate) in the first quarter boosted by reconstruction spending, a pickup in private consumption, and inventory rebuilding. Headline inflation was negative at -0.2 percent (year-on-year) in June and core inflation, excluding food and energy, was also negative at -0.6 percent (year-on year).

The trade balance moved into deficit in 2011 (1/3 percent of GDP), the first annual deficit recorded since 1980. Exports were impacted by the supply chain disruptions, weak global demand and an appreciation of the yen. At the same time, imports have risen, driven by reconstruction spending and higher energy costs following the closure of most nuclear power plants. The trade balance remained in deficit in early 2012, but the current account balance continued to record a surplus of about 1½–2 percent of GDP in 2011 and early 2012, because of sizable investment income earnings.

The recent turmoil in Europe has led to a flight to safety and impacted Japanese financial markets. Since mid-2011, equity prices have declined by about 15 percent and yields on 10-year Japanese Government Bonds (JGBs) have fallen to near historic lows of 70-80 basis points. Over the same period, the yen has appreciated by about 8 percent in nominal effective terms.

The Japanese economy is expected to expand by almost 2½ percent in 2012 helped by substantial public reconstruction spending of around 1½ percent of GDP and recovering consumer demand. Weak external demand is likely to weigh on exports and private investment. The recovery is forecast to slow in 2013 to 1½ percent, as reconstruction winds down. Over the medium-term, growth is expected to converge to around 1 percent as Japan’s aging population slows potential growth.

Japan’s fiscal deficit is set to increase to about 10 percent of GDP in 2012, while the structural primary deficit will rise slightly to 7½ percent of GDP. In an important step toward medium-term fiscal consolidation, the Lower House of the Diet approved a tax bill in late June that would increase the consumption tax to 8 percent in April 2014 and 10 percent in October 2015. The Upper House is now considering the bill. If implemented and added to already planned expenditure measures, the overall reduction in the structural fiscal deficit would be about 5 percent of GDP over the next decade.

The Bank of Japan’s (BoJ) recent actions strengthened its policy framework and supported the recovery. The adoption in February of a medium to long-term price stability goal of 1 percent has helped clarify the objective of monetary policy. In addition, the BoJ expanded its Asset Purchase Program by ¥15 trillion this year in two steps and extended the maturity of JGB purchases from 1–2 years to 1–3 years. Together with earlier commitments this is a sizeable monetary expansion, totaling about 5 percent of GDP over the next year.

The Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) update found that important steps have been taken to strengthen the financial system since the last assessment in 2003. In particular, financial regulation and supervision has been effective in encouraging the large banks and insurance companies to strengthen their capital positions and resilience to shocks. As a result, while the global financial crisis, earthquake and spillovers from the Thai floods led to significant economic disruptions, the impact on financial stability was limited.

Looking ahead, the FSAP stress tests suggest that in the near term banks and insurers would be resilient to severe economic distress and moderate market shocks. However, the key challenges financial institutions face in safeguarding financial stability are to raise profitability in a low growth environment, while managing risk associated with their JGB and equity holdings.

Executive Board Assessment

Executive Directors noted that, despite a worsening of the global outlook, the Japanese economy is recovering, helped by reconstruction activity and private consumption. Directors saw risks to the outlook tilted to the downside and primarily stemming from the possibility of a further escalation of the crisis in Europe and a sharper than expected slowing of the Chinese economy. Directors agreed that, beyond the short term, the main challenge is to reduce the public debt burden in an environment of low growth and address continued deflation and the impact of a rapidly aging population.

Directors stressed that reducing the public debt burden is a key policy priority and requires sustained fiscal consolidation over the next decade. They welcomed passage by the Lower House of the Diet of legislation to double the consumption tax rate to 10 percent by 2015, and agreed that targeted transfers to lower income groups could be considered to address the regressive nature of the tax. Directors also noted that additional fiscal consolidation measures, designed so as to limit any adverse impact on growth, would be needed beyond 2015 to put the public debt ratio firmly on a downward path. Of particular importance will be pension reform to contain social security spending while balancing inter generational equity.

Directors underscored the importance of speedy implementation of far reaching structural reforms to raise growth. Given the rapidly aging population, policies aimed at increasing employment of women and older workers and facilitating immigration could have a large payoff. Directors also saw scope for productivity improvements by easing regulation of the agriculture and services sectors. Participation in additional free trade agreements would also help in this regard.

Directors commended the Bank of Japan for the conduct of monetary policy during the past year and the adoption of a 1 percent inflation goal. They generally supported further monetary easing as part of a comprehensive package of policies to defeat deflation, particularly if the growth outlook worsens, while acknowledging that the effectiveness of further easing is limited in the very low interest rate environment. Directors also underscored the importance of improved communication of policy intentions.

Directors took note of staff’s view that Japan’s external position is moderately weaker than that consistent with medium term fundamentals and desirable policies. They considered that Japan should continue to allow the exchange rate to be market determined, although intervention could be used to counter volatile or disorderly market conditions.

Directors agreed with the findings of the recent Financial Sector Stability Assessment Update. They noted that the financial system is stable and resilient to severe economic stress and moderate market shocks. However, banks’ low profitability and large holdings of Japanese government securities raise some concerns and should be monitored closely.

To safeguard financial sector stability, Directors saw scope to strengthen further systemic risk monitoring and to improve the prudential framework, including by tightening large exposure limits on bank lending, raising capital requirements for domestic oriented banks, and basing the assessment of insurance companies’ solvency on a more refined economic valuation. Directors also saw room to strengthen the crisis resolution framework for systemically important nonbank financial institutions. Directors encouraged reforms to promote more market based credit intermediation, including through a reduced role of government, to enhance the role of the financial sector in supporting growth.


 

 


        
Japan: Selected Economic Indicators, 2007–13
 

Nominal GDP: US$ 5,867 billion (2011)

Population: 127.8 million (2011)

GDP per capita: US$ 45,900 (2011)

Quota: SDR 15,628.5 million

      Proj.
 2007200820092010201120122013
 

Growth (percent change) 1/

       

Real GDP

2.2-1.0-5.54.4-0.72.41.5

Domestic demand

1.1-1.3-4.02.70.13.01.5

Private consumption

0.9-0.9-0.72.60.12.71.7

Residential investment

-9.8-6.6-16.6-4.25.40.71.5

Business investment

4.9-2.6-14.30.51.13.24.8

Government consumption

1.1-0.12.32.11.92.0-0.5

Public investment

-5.9-7.47.00.4-3.66.3-12.5

Stockbuilding 2/

0.30.2-1.60.8-0.50.20.5

Net exports 2/

1.10.2-1.51.7-0.8-0.50.0

Exports of goods and services

8.71.4-24.224.2-0.13.15.0

Imports of goods and services

2.30.3-15.711.15.97.45.7

Inflation (annual average)

       

CPI

0.11.4-1.3-0.7-0.30.20.0

GDP deflator

-0.9-1.3-0.5-2.1-2.1-0.1-0.1

Unemployment rate (annual average)

3.84.05.15.14.64.54.4

Government (percent of GDP)

       

General government

       

Revenue

31.231.629.629.630.630.931.4

Expenditure

33.335.740.039.040.740.939.9

Balance

-2.1-4.1-10.4-9.4-10.1-9.9-8.6

Primary Balance

-2.1-3.8-9.9-8.7-9.2-8.8-7.4

Public Debt, gross

183.0191.8210.2215.3229.9234.5240.0

Money and credit (percent change, end-period)

       

Base money

0.41.85.27.013.5......

M2 (period average)

2.11.83.12.33.2......

Domestic credit

-2.31.60.41.30.8......

Bank lending

0.74.6-0.9-1.80.7......

Interest rate

       

Overnight call rate, uncollateralized (end-period)

0.460.100.090.10.1......

Three-month CD rate (annual average)

0.510.510.330.30.3......

Official discount rate (end-period)

0.750.300.300.30.3......

Balance of payments (in billions of US$)

       

Current account balance

212.2159.8146.6204.0119.2130.3167.0

Percent of GDP

4.93.32.93.72.02.22.7

Trade balance

105.138.443.491.0-20.5-10.235.1

Percent of GDP

2.40.80.91.7-0.3-0.20.6

Exports of goods, f.o.b.

678.4746.5545.3730.1787.2807.4830.0

Imports of goods, f.o.b.

573.3708.0501.9639.1807.7817.6795.0

Oil imports (trade basis)

130.1190.699.9134.3185.0227.8233.7

FDI, net (percent of GDP)

-1.2-2.2-1.2-1.1-2.0-1.3-1.3

Terms of trade (percent change)

-2.1-9.619.5-3.3-7.93.97.0

Change in reserves

36.530.827.344.3177.0......

Total reserves minus gold (in billions of US$)

952.81009.41022.21096.21258.2......

Exchange rates (annual average)

       

Yen/dollar rate

117.8103.493.687.879.8......

Yen/euro rate

161.4152.1130.3116.5111.0......

Real effective exchange rate 3/

83.693.7110.5118.2126.2......

Real effective exchange rate (CPI-based)

83.290.1101.5102.7104.4......
 

Sources: Global Insight, Nomura database; IMF, Competitiveness Indicators System; and IMF staff estimates and projections as of Feb 21, 2012.

1/ Annual growth rates and contributions are calculated from seasonally adjusted data.

2/ Contribution to GDP growth.

3/ Based on normalized unit labor costs; 2000=100.

1 Under Article IV of the IMF's Articles of Agreement, the IMF holds bilateral discussions with members, usually every year. A staff team visits the country, collects economic and financial information, and discusses with officials the country's economic developments and policies. On return to headquarters, the staff prepares a report, which forms the basis for discussion by the Executive Board. At the conclusion of the discussion, the Managing Director, as Chairman of the Board, summarizes the views of Executive Directors, and this summary is transmitted to the country's authorities. An explanation of any qualifiers used in summings up can be found here: http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/misc/qualifiers.htm.




 


政府原爆事故調査委員会最終報告 [Social Policy]

今朝,7月25日の朝日新聞の一面トップ記事が,「10都県でストロンチューム」だったのに,改めて「人災」としての副島原発事故への怒りがこみ上げてきました.

1番大量の放射能を放出したのは2号機だったそうですが,そこの職員が適切な処理をしないまま,12ボルト・バッテリーが届かないことに責めを被せていたのは心外極まります..

最終報告では次のように追加記述しています.
b)2 号機S/C 圧力・温度の監視
福島第一原発2 号機では、平成23 年3 月11 日の全電源喪失以降、原子炉隔離
時冷却系(RCIC)が作動していたものの、電源喪失により制御不能であり、い
つ停止するかも分からない状況にあった中で、同月12 日4 時頃以降、RCIC の
水源を復水貯蔵タンクから圧力抑制室(S/C)に切り替えた。しかし、電源喪失
によって残留熱除去系による冷却が期待できない場合に、このような運転方法を
長時間継続すると、S/C の圧力及び温度が上昇し、RCIC の冷却機能及び注水機
能が低下するほか、RCIC が機能しなくなった場合の次なる代替注水手段である
消防車を用いた消火系注水に必要な主蒸気逃し安全弁(SR 弁)による減圧操作
が困難になるなどのおそれがあった。したがって、S/C の圧力及び温度を継続し
て監視するとともに、あらかじめ消防車注水ラインを準備し、RCIC 停止を待た
ずに原子炉減圧操作を行う必要があったと考えられる。しかし、実際には、同月
14 日4 時30 分頃まで前記のような計測が行われず、速やかな代替注水が実施さ
れることもなかった。
他方、福島第二原発では、RCIC 作動中から、間断なく注水を実施することを
視野に入れ、S/C の圧力及び水温を監視しながら、段階的にSR 弁を開操作して
復水補給水系による注水を実施するなどの対応がとられた。
前記(a)で述べように、福島第一原発と福島第二原発では状況の違いはある
にせよ、福島第一原発における対処は福島第二原発におけるそれと比べて、適切
さが欠けていたと指摘せざるを得ない。

要するに十分に非常事態の対応を理解しないまま誤った操作を行い,福島第1原発最大の放射能拡散を引き起こし,いわゆるレベル7をもたらした元凶となったモノです.

報告書に書かれてはいませんが,1説では,2号機では爆発で格納容器に破損が生じ,メルトダウンからメルト・スルーを起こして,地下800mに達しているといわれます.それはいわゆる廃炉処理をきわめて非現実的にするものです.

危機対応能力の脆弱性
今回のシビアアクシデントに対する東京電力社員の対処・対応を検証していくと、
自ら考えて事態に臨むという姿勢が十分ではなく、危機対処に必要な柔軟かつ積極
的な思考に欠ける点があったと言わざるを得ない。このことは、個々人の問題とい
うよりは、東京電力がそのような資質・能力の向上を図ることに主眼を置いた教育
訓練を行ってこなかったことに問題があったと言うべきであろう。更に問題を遡っ
ていくと、東京電力を含む電力事業者も国も、我が国の原子力発電所では深刻なシ
ビアアクシデントは起こり得ないという安全神話にとらわれていたがゆえに、危機
を身近で起こり得る現実のものと捉えられなくなっていたことに根源的な問題があ
ると思われる。
東京電力には、原子力安全に関し一次的な責任を負う事業者として、これまでの
教育・訓練の内容を真摯に見直し、原子力に携わる者一人一人に対し、事故対処に
当たって求められる資質・能力の向上を目指した実践的な教育・訓練を実施するよ
う強く期待する。

と安全神話に安住してリスク管理教育を怠ってきた東京電力や関係機関を厳しく批判しています.
過酷事故に備えた訓練などは,これからは必須の要件だといえます.

また書き足すことがアルかも知れませんが,今回はこれだけで止めます.

 

 


イジメは犯罪か?Should bullies be treated as criminals? [Social Policy]

引き続いて,Bullies and suicides の続編を載せます.

アメリカでは学校は決して安全な場所ではなくなっているという表現に驚きます.そして,いくつもの州でbullying を犯罪として刑罰の対象にしようという試みが続いているそうです.1年間の自殺児童数が4,400人にも上ると,何とかしたいと考えるのでしょう.
現在は48州がThe Anti-bullying Lawを定めて,主として初等.中等教育に責任を持つ全米で13,000以上あるSchool Districts,に各州で統一した取り扱いを求めているに止まるのです.

因みに,日本の文部科学省によると,平成19年度に自殺した136人の児童のうち、いじめが原因であると特定されたものは3件で18年度よりも3件少ない,とあります.隠れた実数はもっと多いという指摘はありますが,アメリカとはたいへん大きな差異ですね.それにしても,原因をイジメに特定した経緯がよく分かりませんが....

Recent federal statistics show that school has never been a safer place but that bullying remains a persistent problem: The U.S. Department of Education's most recent school crime and safety survey showed that from 2005 to 2009, 28% of middle- and high-school students reported having been bullied in school, and 6% said they were victims of cyberbullying, even as the number of students who said they'd been victims of theft or violent crime dropped.(最後尾に統計表が添付してあります)

しかし,アメリカで自殺に至ったBullying を犯罪と認めることには,いくつもの異論があるのです.
そのなかで注目されるのは,自殺した児童の親の側が,必ずしも,自分と類似した境遇の両親を再生したくはないという意見があるそうです
she told police she didn't want anyone going to jail for K.J.'s death. "I just didn't want somebody else's family to suffer," she said Monday.

自殺児童の逸失利益をイジメた側や教育機関に請求するというのも,アメリカでは聞かれないことです.それは自殺の場合,逸失利益の概念になじまないと考えるからですし,前述のアメリカの初等・中等教育を担う独立自治体で全米に13,000以上もある学校区には,大きな予定外支出の余力などまったくないからです.
(オーストラリアでは包括的自治体の教育機関に請求して稀にNegligenceとして認定された事例がありますが.なかでも有名な例として,10歳未満の2人の児童のイジメを,最高裁が逆転判決で認めた例があります.)

この論文"Should bullies be treated as criminals?"では,加害者の親に厳しい意見が展開されています.
いじめ学生 を作ったのは,その家庭だと論じられているのです.
Chambers said parents need to be held accountable for their children's hateful behavior. "A lot of people don't understand: These kids learned it from home."

しかし,これは自殺を招くいじめを犯罪としていじめ児童を処罰することへの,有力な反対論なのです.「自分達がイジメ児童を育てた覚えはないと言い切れる両親がどれほどいるのでしょうか?

いずれにしても,児童の自殺に至るイジメを犯罪行為と認めて立法化している州はないのですが.それは「イジメ」が100%「自殺」の原因と認める議論は成り立たず.あくまでその一因に過ぎないと位置づけされるからです.

日本では,いとも簡単に「いじめは犯罪です」,といわれますが,それはきわめていい加減な表現で,「いじめ」に含まれる暴行,傷害,脅迫,器物損壊,侮辱,名誉毀損などなどが刑法の規定する犯罪に当てはまる,というだけで,「いじめ」そのものが刑法に犯罪として規定されている訳ではないのです.百歩譲っていい加減な表現で「いじめ」は犯罪といっても,「喧嘩」はそれに当てはまらないというのですから,ほとんど選別困難で,実際に,犯罪行為として警察が出動する例はごくごく稀です.

大津の事件では,「殺人者」とか「人殺し」とかびっくりするような言葉が飛び交っていますが,なぜ,イジメをストレートに自殺と結びつけるのでしょうか.
アメリカではイジメで「自殺」を考えた100人の内1人しか実際には自殺していないといわれます

大津市では教育行政を巡って,教育委員会と新任市長とが権限争いを起こして混乱し,市長は,本来調査目的以外には一切使わないと歌って記入されたはずのアンケートを,学校や教育委員会に公表させ,別に,新たな調査委員会を作るそうですが,そこに訴訟当事者の一方だけに何か注文を付けさせるのは異常で,非常識で,不公正です

自殺児童の親の訴訟や告訴について「イジメをなくすのに役立てたい」といった美辞麗句が表現されていますが,世界的な例を見ても,「いじめ」が隠れて陰湿化することはあっても,「いじめ」がなくなることなどあり得ないでしょう.
「いじめ」についてそんな安易な認識の親がいたとしたら,児童の自殺予防にどれだけ正しい関心があったのか大いに疑われます.

市長は調査委員会を教育委員会にではなく市長直属で置くようですが,その設置の根拠が明らかでありません,本来なら,設置条例をきちんと制定し,調査権も明記してやるべきです.調査委員に調査員を付けて調査に当たらせるそうですが,その調査権限の根拠はゼロではありませんか.

市長は,既に損害賠償訴訟に和解を申し出ており,調査委員会に和解条件の根拠付けを求めたいようですが,委員の選任に訴訟当事者の一方だけの意見を取り入れた調査委員会の勧告に基づく和解条件では,裁判所や市民,議会の承認を得られる見通しは低いのではありませんか.

自殺児童の親側は,「いじめ」と「自殺」の因果関係に踏み込んだ市の調査委員会審議を望んだそうですが,それは,全然,筋違いで,しかも無理な話です.
何故なら,アメリカで自殺を招くイジメを犯罪として法律化しようとしても出来ないでいるのは,どこまでいっても「イジメ」は自殺の一因としか認めようがないからです.

せいぜい出来ることは,自殺に追い込まれようとする児童の内面の悩みに寄り添って,自殺を押しとどめることですが,調査では,今回,何故それが出来なかったかを実親,親族そして学校関係者について明らかにし,広く自殺予防に役立てることを期待します.
換言していえば,調査委員会は,何故,自殺児童が,アメリカの例で現実に自殺を考える100人のうち,それを実際に実行する1人に入ってしまったのかを,きちんと調べるべきです.
イジメ児童の親がイジメ児童を育成したとしても,自殺児童の親が一方的な被害者で善意の第三者ないし傍観者でよかった筈はないのです.大津市庁舎に親が児童の遺影を持参したという報道に,耳を疑いました.自分も関係者で児童の自殺に責任の一端があるとは,まったく考え及ばなかったのでしょうか.

調査委員会でも,訴訟審理でも,あくまで「いじめ」は自殺の一因に過ぎないという世界の常識的理解を前提に審議・審理されることを切に期待するものです.

参考までに,これまでの日本における判例では,「自殺予見可能性」(上記オーストラリアの例でNegligence)の有無という形で,学校側の責任を否定している場合があり,自殺した児童の親(原告)が適切な自殺予防の対応を取らなかった場合,0~10/10といった責任割合を認定して,賠償や慰謝料を否定ないし割引いています.
つまり,民事訴訟の焦点は,学校側の「自殺予見可能性」と「自殺児童の親の自殺予防対応の程度」の2点なのです.

1例を挙げますと,葬式ごっこの色紙に教師が4人も署名していたことで有名な東京都中野区富士見中学校の自殺事件(1986)で,東京高裁はいじめと自殺の因果関係を認定しながら,学校側の予見不可能として,自殺損害への賠償は否認し,東京都,中野区,いじめ児童の両親に,慰謝料1000万円+弁護士費用の支払いを命ずるに止まりました.

大津の事例でも,担任の軽々しい発言からすると,どう見ても,自殺の可能性を予見していたとは考えられないのではないでしょうか.事の善悪ではなく,判例に見るとおり.認識がなかった者に責任を負わせることは出来ないだろうということです.教師は聖職者だとか専門職者だとか勝手なイメージを押しつけても,始まらないでしょう.
また,「自殺児童の親の自殺予防対応の程度」は,これまでのその言動,とくに自分は全くの被害者,犠牲者だという言動を見る限り,ほとんどゼロだったのではないでしょうか.

この2点は,「イジメ児童」の処遇にも,決定的な重要性を持つと考えます.学校側の「自殺予見可能性」がきわめて低く,自殺児童の親の自殺予防対応がほとんどゼロだったとすれば,「イジメ児童」だけが不利益な処遇を受ける理由は限りなく乏しいと考えるからです.

他方では,今回,刑法上の暴行行為を警察が認定して,家宅捜索で内部文書の筈のアンケートを押収し,教師,児童からの聴取に入ったようですが,それは日本の警察がよくやる別件捜査・捜索(別件,この場合競技場での児童拘束,暴行を掲げて,本星は「いじめ」と「自殺」の因果関係を捜索するという全然不公正な日本的やり方)をやっているもので,もし,そこから実際に「いじめ」と「自殺」の因果関係を判断するとしたら,既に司法の民事訴訟審理が始まっている事案について,行政警察の違憲といえる越権行為になるのではと考えます.
警察は捜査機関に過ぎないのですから,捜査資料を検察庁や家庭裁判所,児童相談所等に送る権能しか持ち合わせていないはずです.少年や児童にかかわる内容の漏洩が許されないのは.いうまでもありません.

聴取している児童のなかには,裁判所の証人として喚問される可能性がある児童も含まれるだろうことを,警察はどう考えているのでしょう.弁護側が,児童の法廷証言は事前に警察に誘導された可能性があると争ったら,どう対応するのでしょうか...

とにかくこの事件は,自分の児童保護責任を棚上げして100%被害者ぶった自殺児童の親とマスコミと野次馬連が合体したところに,客観性,独立性を放擲して警察も市長もすんなり乗ってしまったことで,必要以上に問題を巨大化,複雑化,長期化させてしまったと考えるものです.

特に校内アンケート(本来外部に公表しないという守秘義務を歌って記入されたはずのモノ)の公表は,今後,全国的に学校や教育委員会の調査活動を著しく困難にしたと思われます.市長は3時間も教育長と膝詰め談判をして,敢えて公開させたそうですが,これは独立した行政委員会の教育行政に対する明らかな越権行為です.

さらに,教育委員会は自殺児童の親の問題を提起しているのに,市長がこれを理由説明なしで無視し,調査委員会にも触れさせないとしているのは,まったく理解に苦しみます.
市長自身がいじめられっ子だったそうですが,まるで自分の体験をここに投影させているかのようですしかし今回の自殺児童の親の言動に偏向した不公正な取り扱いは,やがて市議会からも説明要求があるでしょうし,その如何では,市議会に調査委員会経費支出を否認されかねず,市長の和解条件(恐らくはある程度の支出を伴なう)も否認されかねません.

弁護士資格も経験も重ねた市長がいったん行った和解の意思表示は,当初は,事態の早期終結を願ったものとして理解できましたが,その市長が一転して事態解決の見通しをすっかり先送りしてしまったのは,いったい何故でしょう.それではまるで偏向した職権濫用ではありませんか.

それらによって,何よりも,長期に亘って,イジメ児童のみならず,傍観児童,垣間見児童等多数の児童を,本来,外部に漏れないと考えて記入したアンケートを基に,入れ替わり立ち替りの調査,聴取にさらして,不安な心理状態に据え置くことのそれぞれの児童の一生に亘る大きな大きなマイナス面を考えると,膨らみ続ける大人達関係者のエゴイズムとスタンドプレイに,たいへん心が痛みます.

終わりに,念のためいいたいことは自分の息子の自殺を止められなかった親が,懸命になって演出しようとしているいわば「復讐劇」のステージに,マスコミ報道後から関与してきた市長,滋賀県警,調査委員会は,過去の経験にとらわれず,決して乗るべきではないということです.
過去の出来事への復讐は,将来に向かって何ものも生み出すものではないからです.

これまでの経緯で既に必要以上に心を傷つけられてきた児童のさらなる犠牲は,もう誰も望むところではないというべきではないでしょうか.

なお,アメリカでは,常時,約1000人の教師が担任を外されて,待機中だといわれていること,他方では,約16万人もの児童がいじめを回避すべく通学を控えていること,を付言しておきます.

日本でも.もっともっとイジメを避ける怠学が増えれば,マスコミの無責任な特定児童問題の巨大化以上に,学校,教育委員会,文部科学省に,いっそう真剣な対応を迫ることになるのではないでしょうか
日本で怠学の増大が見られないのは,自殺志向に近づいた児童の親の学校任せから来る不注意,無関心からではないでしょうか.今回の大津市の事例が,全国的に,学童の親の児童への関心の向上に役立てば,一抹の救いになるのではないでしょうか.
そのためには,文部科学省が,学校は決して安全なところではないと,アメリカのように警告を発したら良いのではないでしょうか.
イジメ問題でいたずらに学校や学童を萎縮させるより,もっと親に責任を持たせた方が,問題の緩和と学園の自由闊達な雰囲気の助長に大きく寄与すると考えるモノです.

付言しますと,市長やマスコミから一方的に批判されてきた教育長が,他県から来た大学生の無分別な一撃に大怪我をされたことは,まことにお気の毒なことです.
ここまで,児童自殺の一因に止まる問題を一方的な悪玉vs善玉の構図として不必要に巨大化させてしまった関係者に,大いなる反省を求めたいと考えます.

 

 

Should bullies be treated as criminals?

 

What can be done?

Recent federal statistics show that school has never been a safer place but that bullying remains a persistent problem: The U.S. Department of Education's most recent school crime and safety survey showed that from 2005 to 2009, 28% of middle- and high-school students reported having been bullied in school, and 6% said they were victims of cyberbullying, even as the number of students who said they'd been victims of theft or violent crime dropped. About one in 16 students surveyed said he or she was bullied at school "almost every day." Among seventh-graders, nearly one in 10 was bullied every day.

As in many bullying cases, Phoebe's suicide raised questions about how effective her school had been in keeping her safe. In the fall of 2009, Phoebe, a recent immigrant from Ireland, and her mother talked to school counselors about Phoebe's bullying difficulties in Ireland.

Rosalind Wiseman, the author of the 2002 book Queen Bees & Wannabes, a bestseller about teen girls' relationships that was the basis of the movie Mean Girls, said the district attorney in Phoebe's case "chose very carefully" how she charged the teens. "What I wish she had done was hold the adults responsible."

Wiseman met with teens at Phoebe's school after the suicide and found that quite a few "were really jaded" about the case. "Certainly the adults created the culture in which (bullying) was allowed to thrive." A consultant to schools trying to address bullying, Wiseman said students often tell her that administrators turn a blind eye to complaints if eyewitnesses aren't present. She regularly meets parents who "get crazy-angry" because their kids' bullying complaints go unheeded.

"They feel like they're sending their child into a system that's supposed to keep them safe, but it's actually the biggest risk to their child's safety," she said.

Though Phoebe's case didn't send anyone to prison, it had the intended effect, said Cole, the Massachusetts attorney. None of the six students returned to the school. The case "definitely acts as a deterrent to others." Cole and other civil rights experts worry about dragging too many young people into court, but he says, "There absolutely are times when you need to get the criminal justice system involved."

K.J.'s mother, Jeannie Chambers, isn't so sure. Though police and the county prosecutor won't talk about the case, Chambers says she doubts anyone will be charged. In fact, she told police she didn't want anyone going to jail for K.J.'s death. "I just didn't want somebody else's family to suffer," she said Monday.

Four classmates were disciplined for anti-gay bullying directed at K.J. before his death. Chambers said that she believes their behavior directly contributed to his suicide but that the four have already been subjected to withering criticism from classmates. Chambers told police she hoped the students received counseling, not jail time. "I didn't want somebody else to — how do I say it? — go through what my son went through."

Echoing Hall's proposed legislation, Chambers said parents need to be held accountable for their children's hateful behavior. "A lot of people don't understand: These kids learned it from home."

 


Bullying(いじめ) And Suicide(自殺): The Dangerous Mistake We Make [Social Policy]

滋賀県大津市の中学2年生の飛び降り自殺事件が,大きな関心を呼んでいますが,私も,London School of Economics (LSE)で,David V. Donnison 教授のTutorial を受けた時に,Donnison 教授の著書”The Neglected Child and the Social Servoces" が話題になった事を思い出しています.

その著書からしますと,Bullying(いじめ)の場合,いじめた側の問題はもちろんですが,まず,何故,児童の両親や担任教師が児童の異常に事前に気づいてあげられなかったのだろうという疑念が沸きます.

そうした内面の問題は,近い人には打ち明けにくいという事情は分かります.そして,残念ながら日本に今欠けているのは,日本語の「民間」や「NPO」では表せない伝統あるNeglect 関連のVoluntary Organization が欠落している事だと思われてなりません.

欧米でもbullying の問題はきわめて古くからの問題で,bullying に一因がアル自殺件数は,下記の通り,日本よりはるかに大きな数字です.(日本では隠されているのでしょうが...)また,毎年のように起こる欧米の大学その他での銃乱射事件の背景には,多くは現場で射殺されてしまうので断定的にはいえませんが,なかには10~20歳時のbullying への報復のケースがあったといわれています.

しかし,私がいいたいのは,自殺の背景,原因はストレートにbullying に帰せられるほど単純なものではないだろうということです.世界的に自殺予防のシステム整備が進められている中で,物事を単純化した報道はマイナスの側面を持つと思うのです.
現在のような日本のマスコミの状況では,私が何か発言すると叩かれそうですから,ここでは,もっぱら引用文にそのまま語らせることにします.

mental health professionals and those who work in suicide prevention say bullying-related suicides that reach the spotlight are painted far too simplistically. Bullying and suicide can indeed be connected, though the relationship between the two is much more complicated than a tabloid headline might suggest. To imply clear-cut lines of cause and effect, many experts maintain, is misleading and potentially damaging as it ignores key underlying mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety.

failing to look at the other contributing factors, from depression to family life to the ending of a relationship, is problematic and even perilous from a suicide prevention standpoint. "I am very concerned about the narrative that these stories collectively are writing, which is that suicide is a normal, understandable response to this terrible [bullying] behavior," said Haas. "In suicide prevention, we tend to favor the explanation that there are multiple causes."

It's so much harder to look at the person you loved so much and ask, what was going on inside him


The statistics on bullying and suicide are alarming:

 

  • Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people, resulting in about 4,400 deaths per year, according to the CDC. For every suicide among young people, there are at least 100 suicide attempts. Over 14 percent of high school students have considered suicide, and almost 7 percent have attempted it.
  • Bully victims are between 2 to 9 times more likely to consider suicide than non-victims, according to studies by Yale University
  • A study in Britain found that at least half of suicides among young people are related to bullying
  • 10 to 14 year old girls may be at even higher risk for suicide, according to the study above
  • According to statistics reported by ABC News, nearly 30 percent of students are either bullies or victims of bullying, and 160,000 kids stay home from school every day because of fear of bullying

 

Bully-related suicide can be connected to any type of bullying, including physical bullying, emotional bullying, cyberbullying, and sexting, or circulating suggestive or nude photos or messages about a person.

 

 

 

Bullying And Suicide: The Dangerous Mistake We Make

Each of these tragedies mobilized a cultural army of anti-bullying advocates, celebrities, the media and policymakers who have said -- or at least strongly implied -- that bullying can lead to suicide.

But mental health professionals and those who work in suicide prevention say bullying-related suicides that reach the spotlight are painted far too simplistically. Bullying and suicide can indeed be connected, though the relationship between the two is much more complicated than a tabloid headline might suggest. To imply clear-cut lines of cause and effect, many experts maintain, is misleading and potentially damaging as it ignores key underlying mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety.

"Bullying is at the top of our consciousness that we're bending over backwards to get it into the story," said Ann Haas, a senior project specialist with the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. "Years and years of research has taught us that the overwhelming number of people who die by suicide had a diagnosable mental disorder at the time of their death."

Haas argues that failing to look at the other contributing factors, from depression to family life to the ending of a relationship, is problematic and even perilous from a suicide prevention standpoint. "I am very concerned about the narrative that these stories collectively are writing, which is that suicide is a normal, understandable response to this terrible [bullying] behavior," said Haas. "In suicide prevention, we tend to favor the explanation that there are multiple causes."

Lidia Bernik, an associate project director with National Suicide Prevention Lifeline, said that people often seek a simple explanation when something as difficult to understand as suicide occurs. "I speak from personal experience," she said. "I lost my sister to suicide. You're left with, 'Why did this happen?'"

Bullying can offer an answer, she said: "It's almost easier to understand -- someone was victimized, and then they killed themselves."

Nicole Cardarelli, 27, who works in state advocacy outreach for the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, admits that for years after her brother Greg's suicide in 2004, she also blamed bullying. While in high school, Greg began what he thought was a relationship with a girl he met online in a Ford Thunderbird car club. It turned out that two of his friends were behind the fake account. After several months, the boys exposed the prank to Greg. Hours later, he killed himself. His family opted not to press charges but they couldn't help placing blame when Greg had named what the boys did in his suicide note as the reason he could no longer go on living.

"If you had asked me after Greg died what I wanted to have happen, I probably would have said I want to kill those boys," said Cardarelli. "It's so much harder to look at the person you loved so much and ask, what was going on inside him?"

At the time, Cardarelli didn't see the signs that Greg was troubled, she recalled. But in the subsequent years, she has thought about his behavior a few months before he died. He had lost interest in baseball and Boy Scouts -- two activities he'd been involved with for years. He was sleeping more than usual, pulling away from his family and spending a lot of time on his computer. Cardarelli even remembers a conversation where her mother told her she thought there might be something really wrong with Greg.

"I believe that he was depressed," she said recently.

Just as that suicide may have been more complicated than Cardarelli initially thought, several high-profile cases have exhibited similar, deeper patterns upon further investigation.

Emily Bazelon's 2010 article for Slate exploring the suicide of Phoebe Prince, the teen from Ireland, serves as a powerful example of what can be learned when a suicide is examined more closely. There's no doubt that Prince endured cruel treatment from a group of classmates, but Bazelon reported that Prince had attempted suicide in the past, that she'd gone off antidepressants, and that she frequently cut herself. (In December, Bazelon followed up on the Prince case by reporting that Prince's family members had reached a settlement with the town of South Hadley, Mass., for $225,000.)

The death of Staten Island teen Amanda Cummings, whose family primarily blamed bullying for her death, is proving to be less straight-forward as well. The NYPD has yet to find any evidence of bullying, and she was reportedly devastated over the end of a relationship with an older boy.

Last week, the New Yorker revisited the Clementi case at Rutgers from 2010 and offered a more nuanced view of the tragedy. News stories initially reported that Clementi was outed by his roommate, and that the video of him with another man was posted to the Internet, neither of which is true.

According to the New Yorker, Clementi came out to family members three days before he started at Rutgers -- he told a friend his mother didn't respond well -- and he attended a meeting of the school's Bisexual, Gay, and Lesbian Alliance. Documents found on Clementi's computer, the piece reported, were titled "sorry" and "Why is everything so painful." He had told a friend, "I would consider myself out if only there was someone for me to come out to." His roommate's actions were reprehensible, and they may have contributed to Clementi's death, but these new details suggest the possibility of a far more complex situation.

Even though suicides often prove to involve multiple factors, most experts are still quick to add that bullying can aggravate depression and increase suicide risk, and its seriousness shouldn't be minimized.

Clayton Cook, a professor of educational psychology at the University of Washington, argues that because mental health issues are often a common thread running through bullying and suicide, schools should not have a narrowly-focused solution.

"The idea is that if you adopt a broad spectrum approach to preventing mental health problems, that you're also going to reduce the bullying," said Cook. "If you look at the scientific literature, bullying prevention programs haven't shown to be effective. It's addressing the symptom and not the cause." Cook suggests teachers adopt a social emotional learning curriculum as they would a reading curriculum. "We'd teach kids how to exhibit care and concern for others, how to manage their emotions before they get the best of them," Cook explained.

The good news, according to Cook, is that the prevalence of bullying has likely been overstated. Catherine Bradshaw, deputy director of the Center for the Prevention of Youth Violence at Johns Hopkins, agrees. "We don't have data to show that bullying is an epidemic or that it's increasing," she said.

The Centers for Disease Control's bullying task force, of which Cook and Bradshaw are members, is working to establish a uniform definition of bullying for research purposes, but results may not be available until this summer. The task force is treating bullying as a public health concern and developing policy-based solutions.

As far as the prevalence of youth suicide goes, the most recent numbers from the CDC show that, among 15 to 19 year-olds, suicides fell marginally from 8.02 per 100,000 in 2000 to 7.79 per 100,00 in 2009. Those numbers have fluctuated in the years between though, and the 10-year low was in 2007.

"We don't know about 2009 to 2011," said Madelyn Gould, a professor of clinical epidemiology in psychiatry at Columbia who studies youth suicide and prevention efforts. "But probably, the accessibility of the Internet has made it such that there are many more stories about suicide, not necessarily more suicides." Since January of 2010, the words bullying and suicide have appeared together in 592 articles -- and that's only print newspapers.

"I would just hope that these stories also talk about the other risks involved with suicidal behavior," said Gould. "If someone is being bullied, they should not jump to the conclusion that one of [their] options is suicide. What they should jump to is, one of the options I have is to get help."

Megan Meier killed herself in 2006 after a cruel MySpace prank orchestrated by an adult neighbor. Her mother, Tina Meier, argues that the pros of linking bullying and suicide still outweigh the cons. "I think since Megan's story there has been a lot more awareness," she explained. "Before, everybody was kind of like, 'Okay, well kids get bullied and we'll deal with it.' We didn't realize the impact that it truly has."

Young people may not be able to avoid exposure to bullying or suicide, but David Litts, an associate director with the Suicide Prevention Resource Center, said parents should take these tragic stories as an opportunity to talk to their children, especially if already concerned.

"You really need to open up the dialogue in a way that he or she can risk being honest," said Litts. "To look someone in the eye and say, 'Yes, I want to kill myself,' is a hard thing to do. So it's important that whoever asks the question asks it in a way that conveys they're ready to hear an honest answer."

Need help? In the U.S., call 1-800-273-8255 for the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline.You can also visit The Trevor Project's website, a national organization providing support to LGBT youth, or call them at 1-866-488-7386. And if you're worried about a friend on Facebook, you can report troubling posts. They'll connect your friend with a representative from National Suicide Prevention Lifeline.

 

 

 

 

Some of the warning signs of suicide can include:

 

  • Showing signs of depression, like ongoing sadness, withdrawal from others, losing interest in favorite activities, or trouble sleeping or eating
  • Talking about or showing an interest in death or dying
  • Engaging in dangerous or harmful activities, including reckless behavior, substance abuse, or self injury
  • Giving away favorite possessions and saying goodbye to people
  • Saying or expressing that they can't handle things anymore
  • Making comments that things would be better without them

If a person is displaying these symptoms, talk to them about your concerns and get them help right away, such as from a counselor, doctor, or at the emergency room.

 

In some cases, it may not be obvious that a teen is thinking about suicide, such as when the suicide seems to be triggered by a particularly bad episode of bullying. In several cases where bullying victims killed themselves, bullies had told the teen that he or she should kill him or herself or that the world would be better without them. Others who hear these types of statements should be quick to stop them and explain to the victim that the bully is wrong.

 

Other ways to help people who may be considering suicide include:

 

  • Take all talk or threats of suicide seriously. Don't tell the person they are wrong or that they have a lot to live for. Instead, get them immediate medical help.
  • Keep weapons and medications away from anyone who is at risk for suicide. Get these items out of the house or at least securely locked up.
  • Parents should encourage their teens to talk about bullying that takes place. It may be embarrassing for kids to admit they are the victims of bullying, and most kids don't want to admit they have been involved in bullying. Tell victims that it's not their fault that they are being bullied and show them love and support. Get them professional help if the bullying is serious.
  • It is a good idea for parents to insist on being included in their children's friends on social networking sites so they can see if someone has posted mean messages about them online. Text messages may be more difficult to know about, so parents should try to keep open communications with their children about bullying.
  • Parents who see a serious bullying problem should talk to school authorities about it, and perhaps arrange a meeting with the bully's parents. More states are implementing laws against bullying, and recent lawsuits against schools and criminal charges against bullies show that there are legal avenues to take to deal with bullies. If school authorities don't help with an ongoing bullying problem, local police or attorneys may be able to.

 

People who are thinking about suicide should talk to someone right away or go to an emergency room. They can also call a free suicide hotline, such as 1-800-273-TALK (8255).

 

Friends and relatives of suicide victims also need to find someone to talk to as they grieve, especially if they are suffering from depression or suicidal thoughts themselves.

 

 

.


予想を上回って人口増加したEngland&Wales [Social Policy]

イギリスの10年に1度の国勢調査結果が公表され,イギリス(ここでは,England & Wales  のみで,独立性の高いScotland & Northern Ireland は含まない)の人口が自然増と移民を合わせて予想を上回って増大したことが判明しました.

日本は,「失われた20年」が物語るように経済的に停滞を続けており,そこに愚かな『人災』が加わり,かねてからの無用の資格障壁,たとえば世界に類例を見ない日本語による社会福祉士,介護福祉士国家試験制度などによって,日本への移民は韓国とほぼ並んで,世界最低の状態です.

日本の移民人口比率は1%台とOECD諸国の中で最低水準。最高はルクセンブルクの36.9%。英米仏独など主要国は11~12%という状態です.

この状態を放置して.人口の急速な高齢化を前提して「税と社会保障の一体改革」などを論ずるのは,まったく無為無策という他ありません.

それを実証したのが,今回のイギリスの国勢調査結果だといえます.

Data shows that from March 2001 to March 2011, there were 6.6 million births and five million deaths in England and Wales, leading to an increase in the population of 1.6 million.

The Office for National Statistics said this accounted for around 44% of the total increase in population size, with the remainder being due to migration.

とあるように,移民は人口の高齢化を抑制する若年齢化に大きく寄与するモノです.

日本では海外留学者も,海外からの留学者も減少していますが,政権交代後の政治家の無能振りは目に余るモノがあり,そこから改善する以外に何の展望も開けないでしょう.

それこそガラガラポンと政界再編成し,無能な労働厚生官僚も,その提灯持ちをしてきた欧米に例を見ない社会福祉学者も総入れ替えして,いったんゼロから再出発する以外に,近未来への展望は開けないのではないでしょうか.

 

 

England and Wales population up

A British crowd The population has grown by 7% in a decade, the Census showed

The population of England and Wales has reached 56.1 million, up by 3.7 million in a decade, the 2011 Census shows.

It is the largest growth shown by any census since they began in 1801.

The population in England was 53 million on 27 March 2011 when the census was taken, about 400,000 more than official estimates.

In Wales the population was 3.1 million. Around 55% of the 3.7m increase was attributed to net migration.

The census showed that the population for England and Wales was greater than official estimates rolled forward from 2001 - by just over 500,000.

Data shows that from March 2001 to March 2011, there were 6.6 million births and five million deaths in England and Wales, leading to an increase in the population of 1.6 million.

The Office for National Statistics said this accounted for around 44% of the total increase in population size, with the remainder being due to migration.

Population by age and sex, England and Wales, 2011

Population by age and sex, England and Wales, 2011

 

BBC home editor Mark Easton says the most likely reason for the discrepancy between the official estimate and the actual population is inaccurate migration data.

It is notable that the number of people in their 20s has risen from 6.6m to 7.6m - that additional one million people are most likely to be migrant workers, he adds.

The latest rise compares with a rise in population of 1.6 million between 1991 and 2001.

The population projections published by the ONS will be revised upwards in the autumn.

On the night of the census there were 23.4 million households in England and Wales, with the average household size being 2.4 people per household in 2011, just over half of the 4.3 residents per household 100 years earlier.

The 2011 Census also showed the average population density was 371 people per square kilometre; however, in London this figure was 5,200.

If the London figures were excluded, the average population density for the rest of England and Wales was 321 people per square kilometre, the ONS said.

All regions saw population growth between 2001 and 2011, with the highest growth in London, the East of England and the East Midlands.

Other population data showed:

 

There are almost half a million more people living in England and Wales than official estimates suggested. The most likely reason for that under-counting is inaccurate migration data.

It is notable that the number of people in their 20s has risen from 6.6m to 7.6m - the additional one million people are most likely to be migrant workers.

The increase in the number of under-fives by 400,000 is also a consequence of immigration, but increasing fertility among British-born women is the key driver in pushing up the fertility rate.

Half of the total increase in population was in London, the South-East and East regions of England.

The Office for National Statistics says that about 55% of the population increase was the result of net migration.

The population projections published by the ONS will be revised upwards in the autumn.

      there were almost a million more women than men in England and Wales -        27.6 million men v 28.5 million women

  • the median age of the population - where half the population is younger and half is older - in England and Wales was 39, with the median age for men being 38 and for women 40
  • there were 406,000 more under-five-year-olds than in 2001
  • one in six people in England and Wales in 2011 was aged 65 and over
  • the percentage of the population aged 65 and over was the highest seen in any census - at 16.4%
  • there were 430,000 residents aged 90 and over in 2011 compared with 340,000 in 2001 and 13,000 in 1911
  • Cardiff saw the greatest population rise of anywhere in Wales, growing by 12%

The public were asked questions about their jobs, health, education and ethnic background. It was the first time people could fill in the form online.

The form was compulsory, but a question about religion was optional. The answers are used to plan public services.

Three different censuses happened on the one day. Northern Ireland and Scotland each managed their own, and these were run separately from the one which was sent to 25.4 million households in England and Wales.

Northern Ireland's population rose to 1.81 million - the highest figure ever - according to its census.

The number of people increased by 7% over the last decade, broadly in line with the figure for England and Wales.

The just-published figures showed an increase in the proportion of elderly people and a decrease in the percentage of children under 16.

Figures for Scotland will be released later this year.

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