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政府原爆事故調査委員会最終報告 [Social Policy]

今朝,7月25日の朝日新聞の一面トップ記事が,「10都県でストロンチューム」だったのに,改めて「人災」としての副島原発事故への怒りがこみ上げてきました.

1番大量の放射能を放出したのは2号機だったそうですが,そこの職員が適切な処理をしないまま,12ボルト・バッテリーが届かないことに責めを被せていたのは心外極まります..

最終報告では次のように追加記述しています.
b)2 号機S/C 圧力・温度の監視
福島第一原発2 号機では、平成23 年3 月11 日の全電源喪失以降、原子炉隔離
時冷却系(RCIC)が作動していたものの、電源喪失により制御不能であり、い
つ停止するかも分からない状況にあった中で、同月12 日4 時頃以降、RCIC の
水源を復水貯蔵タンクから圧力抑制室(S/C)に切り替えた。しかし、電源喪失
によって残留熱除去系による冷却が期待できない場合に、このような運転方法を
長時間継続すると、S/C の圧力及び温度が上昇し、RCIC の冷却機能及び注水機
能が低下するほか、RCIC が機能しなくなった場合の次なる代替注水手段である
消防車を用いた消火系注水に必要な主蒸気逃し安全弁(SR 弁)による減圧操作
が困難になるなどのおそれがあった。したがって、S/C の圧力及び温度を継続し
て監視するとともに、あらかじめ消防車注水ラインを準備し、RCIC 停止を待た
ずに原子炉減圧操作を行う必要があったと考えられる。しかし、実際には、同月
14 日4 時30 分頃まで前記のような計測が行われず、速やかな代替注水が実施さ
れることもなかった。
他方、福島第二原発では、RCIC 作動中から、間断なく注水を実施することを
視野に入れ、S/C の圧力及び水温を監視しながら、段階的にSR 弁を開操作して
復水補給水系による注水を実施するなどの対応がとられた。
前記(a)で述べように、福島第一原発と福島第二原発では状況の違いはある
にせよ、福島第一原発における対処は福島第二原発におけるそれと比べて、適切
さが欠けていたと指摘せざるを得ない。

要するに十分に非常事態の対応を理解しないまま誤った操作を行い,福島第1原発最大の放射能拡散を引き起こし,いわゆるレベル7をもたらした元凶となったモノです.

報告書に書かれてはいませんが,1説では,2号機では爆発で格納容器に破損が生じ,メルトダウンからメルト・スルーを起こして,地下800mに達しているといわれます.それはいわゆる廃炉処理をきわめて非現実的にするものです.

危機対応能力の脆弱性
今回のシビアアクシデントに対する東京電力社員の対処・対応を検証していくと、
自ら考えて事態に臨むという姿勢が十分ではなく、危機対処に必要な柔軟かつ積極
的な思考に欠ける点があったと言わざるを得ない。このことは、個々人の問題とい
うよりは、東京電力がそのような資質・能力の向上を図ることに主眼を置いた教育・
訓練を行ってこなかったことに問題があったと言うべきであろう。更に問題を遡っ
ていくと、東京電力を含む電力事業者も国も、我が国の原子力発電所では深刻なシ
ビアアクシデントは起こり得ないという安全神話にとらわれていたがゆえに、危機
を身近で起こり得る現実のものと捉えられなくなっていたことに根源的な問題があ
ると思われる。
東京電力には、原子力安全に関し一次的な責任を負う事業者として、これまでの
教育・訓練の内容を真摯に見直し、原子力に携わる者一人一人に対し、事故対処に
当たって求められる資質・能力の向上を目指した実践的な教育・訓練を実施するよ
う強く期待する。

と安全神話に安住してリスク管理教育を怠ってきた東京電力や関係機関を厳しく批判しています.
過酷事故に備えた訓練などは,これからは必須の要件だといえます.

また書き足すことがアルかも知れませんが,今回はこれだけで止めます.

 

 


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共通テーマ:学問

イジメは犯罪か?Should bullies be treated as criminals? [Social Policy]

引き続いて,Bullies and suicides の続編を載せます.

アメリカでは学校は決して安全な場所ではなくなっているという表現に驚きます.そして,いくつもの州でbullying を犯罪として刑罰の対象にしようという試みが続いているそうです.1年間の自殺児童数が4,400人にも上ると,何とかしたいと考えるのでしょう.
現在は48州がThe Anti-bullying Lawを定めて,主として初等.中等教育に責任を持つ全米で13,000以上あるSchool Districts,に各州で統一した取り扱いを求めているに止まるのです.

因みに,日本の文部科学省によると,平成19年度に自殺した136人の児童のうち、いじめが原因であると特定されたものは3件で18年度よりも3件少ない,とあります.隠れた実数はもっと多いという指摘はありますが,アメリカとはたいへん大きな差異ですね.それにしても,原因をイジメに特定した経緯がよく分かりませんが....

Recent federal statistics show that school has never been a safer place but that bullying remains a persistent problem: The U.S. Department of Education's most recent school crime and safety survey showed that from 2005 to 2009, 28% of middle- and high-school students reported having been bullied in school, and 6% said they were victims of cyberbullying, even as the number of students who said they'd been victims of theft or violent crime dropped.(最後尾に統計表が添付してあります)

しかし,アメリカで自殺に至ったBullying を犯罪と認めることには,いくつもの異論があるのです.
そのなかで注目されるのは,自殺した児童の親の側が,必ずしも,自分と類似した境遇の両親を再生したくはないという意見があるそうです
she told police she didn't want anyone going to jail for K.J.'s death. "I just didn't want somebody else's family to suffer," she said Monday.

自殺児童の逸失利益をイジメた側や教育機関に請求するというのも,アメリカでは聞かれないことです.それは自殺の場合,逸失利益の概念になじまないと考えるからですし,前述のアメリカの初等・中等教育を担う独立自治体で全米に13,000以上もある学校区には,大きな予定外支出の余力などまったくないからです.
(オーストラリアでは包括的自治体の教育機関に請求して稀にNegligenceとして認定された事例がありますが.なかでも有名な例として,10歳未満の2人の児童のイジメを,最高裁が逆転判決で認めた例があります.)

この論文"Should bullies be treated as criminals?"では,加害者の親に厳しい意見が展開されています.
いじめ学生 を作ったのは,その家庭だと論じられているのです.
Chambers said parents need to be held accountable for their children's hateful behavior. "A lot of people don't understand: These kids learned it from home."

しかし,これは自殺を招くいじめを犯罪としていじめ児童を処罰することへの,有力な反対論なのです.「自分達がイジメ児童を育てた覚えはないと言い切れる両親がどれほどいるのでしょうか?

いずれにしても,児童の自殺に至るイジメを犯罪行為と認めて立法化している州はないのですが.それは「イジメ」が100%「自殺」の原因と認める議論は成り立たず.あくまでその一因に過ぎないと位置づけされるからです.

日本では,いとも簡単に「いじめは犯罪です」,といわれますが,それはきわめていい加減な表現で,「いじめ」に含まれる暴行,傷害,脅迫,器物損壊,侮辱,名誉毀損などなどが刑法の規定する犯罪に当てはまる,というだけで,「いじめ」そのものが刑法に犯罪として規定されている訳ではないのです.百歩譲っていい加減な表現で「いじめ」は犯罪といっても,「喧嘩」はそれに当てはまらないというのですから,ほとんど選別困難で,実際に,犯罪行為として警察が出動する例はごくごく稀です.

大津の事件では,「殺人者」とか「人殺し」とかびっくりするような言葉が飛び交っていますが,なぜ,イジメをストレートに自殺と結びつけるのでしょうか.
アメリカではイジメで「自殺」を考えた100人の内1人しか実際には自殺していないといわれます

大津市では教育行政を巡って,教育委員会と新任市長とが権限争いを起こして混乱し,市長は,本来調査目的以外には一切使わないと歌って記入されたはずのアンケートを,学校や教育委員会に公表させ,別に,新たな調査委員会を作るそうですが,そこに訴訟当事者の一方だけに何か注文を付けさせるのは異常で,非常識で,不公正です

自殺児童の親の訴訟や告訴について「イジメをなくすのに役立てたい」といった美辞麗句が表現されていますが,世界的な例を見ても,「いじめ」が隠れて陰湿化することはあっても,「いじめ」がなくなることなどあり得ないでしょう.
「いじめ」についてそんな安易な認識の親がいたとしたら,児童の自殺予防にどれだけ正しい関心があったのか大いに疑われます.

市長は調査委員会を教育委員会にではなく市長直属で置くようですが,その設置の根拠が明らかでありません,本来なら,設置条例をきちんと制定し,調査権も明記してやるべきです.調査委員に調査員を付けて調査に当たらせるそうですが,その調査権限の根拠はゼロではありませんか.

市長は,既に損害賠償訴訟に和解を申し出ており,調査委員会に和解条件の根拠付けを求めたいようですが,委員の選任に訴訟当事者の一方だけの意見を取り入れた調査委員会の勧告に基づく和解条件では,裁判所や市民,議会の承認を得られる見通しは低いのではありませんか.

自殺児童の親側は,「いじめ」と「自殺」の因果関係に踏み込んだ市の調査委員会審議を望んだそうですが,それは,全然,筋違いで,しかも無理な話です.
何故なら,アメリカで自殺を招くイジメを犯罪として法律化しようとしても出来ないでいるのは,どこまでいっても「イジメ」は自殺の一因としか認めようがないからです.

せいぜい出来ることは,自殺に追い込まれようとする児童の内面の悩みに寄り添って,自殺を押しとどめることですが,調査では,今回,何故それが出来なかったかを実親,親族そして学校関係者について明らかにし,広く自殺予防に役立てることを期待します.
換言していえば,調査委員会は,何故,自殺児童が,アメリカの例で現実に自殺を考える100人のうち,それを実際に実行する1人に入ってしまったのかを,きちんと調べるべきです.
イジメ児童の親がイジメ児童を育成したとしても,自殺児童の親が一方的な被害者で善意の第三者ないし傍観者でよかった筈はないのです.大津市庁舎に親が児童の遺影を持参したという報道に,耳を疑いました.自分も関係者で児童の自殺に責任の一端があるとは,まったく考え及ばなかったのでしょうか.

調査委員会でも,訴訟審理でも,あくまで「いじめ」は自殺の一因に過ぎないという世界の常識的理解を前提に審議・審理されることを切に期待するものです.

参考までに,これまでの日本における判例では,「自殺予見可能性」(上記オーストラリアの例でNegligence)の有無という形で,学校側の責任を否定している場合があり,自殺した児童の親(原告)が適切な自殺予防の対応を取らなかった場合,0~10/10といった責任割合を認定して,賠償や慰謝料を否定ないし割引いています.
つまり,民事訴訟の焦点は,学校側の「自殺予見可能性」と「自殺児童の親の自殺予防対応の程度」の2点なのです.

1例を挙げますと,葬式ごっこの色紙に教師が4人も署名していたことで有名な東京都中野区富士見中学校の自殺事件(1986)で,東京高裁はいじめと自殺の因果関係を認定しながら,学校側の予見不可能として,自殺損害への賠償は否認し,東京都,中野区,いじめ児童の両親に,慰謝料1000万円+弁護士費用の支払いを命ずるに止まりました.

大津の事例でも,担任の軽々しい発言からすると,どう見ても,自殺の可能性を予見していたとは考えられないのではないでしょうか.事の善悪ではなく,判例に見るとおり.認識がなかった者に責任を負わせることは出来ないだろうということです.教師は聖職者だとか専門職者だとか勝手なイメージを押しつけても,始まらないでしょう.
また,「自殺児童の親の自殺予防対応の程度」は,これまでのその言動,とくに自分は全くの被害者,犠牲者だという言動を見る限り,ほとんどゼロだったのではないでしょうか.

この2点は,「イジメ児童」の処遇にも,決定的な重要性を持つと考えます.学校側の「自殺予見可能性」がきわめて低く,自殺児童の親の自殺予防対応がほとんどゼロだったとすれば,「イジメ児童」だけが不利益な処遇を受ける理由は限りなく乏しいと考えるからです.

他方では,今回,刑法上の暴行行為を警察が認定して,家宅捜索で内部文書の筈のアンケートを押収し,教師,児童からの聴取に入ったようですが,それは日本の警察がよくやる別件捜査・捜索(別件,この場合競技場での児童拘束,暴行を掲げて,本星は「いじめ」と「自殺」の因果関係を捜索するという全然不公正な日本的やり方)をやっているもので,もし,そこから実際に「いじめ」と「自殺」の因果関係を判断するとしたら,既に司法の民事訴訟審理が始まっている事案について,行政警察の違憲といえる越権行為になるのではと考えます.
警察は捜査機関に過ぎないのですから,捜査資料を検察庁や家庭裁判所,児童相談所等に送る権能しか持ち合わせていないはずです.少年や児童にかかわる内容の漏洩が許されないのは.いうまでもありません.

聴取している児童のなかには,裁判所の証人として喚問される可能性がある児童も含まれるだろうことを,警察はどう考えているのでしょう.弁護側が,児童の法廷証言は事前に警察に誘導された可能性があると争ったら,どう対応するのでしょうか...

とにかくこの事件は,自分の児童保護責任を棚上げして100%被害者ぶった自殺児童の親とマスコミと野次馬連が合体したところに,客観性,独立性を放擲して警察も市長もすんなり乗ってしまったことで,必要以上に問題を巨大化,複雑化,長期化させてしまったと考えるものです.

特に校内アンケート(本来外部に公表しないという守秘義務を歌って記入されたはずのモノ)の公表は,今後,全国的に学校や教育委員会の調査活動を著しく困難にしたと思われます.市長は3時間も教育長と膝詰め談判をして,敢えて公開させたそうですが,これは独立した行政委員会の教育行政に対する明らかな越権行為です.

さらに,教育委員会は自殺児童の親の問題を提起しているのに,市長がこれを理由説明なしで無視し,調査委員会にも触れさせないとしているのは,まったく理解に苦しみます.
市長自身がいじめられっ子だったそうですが,まるで自分の体験をここに投影させているかのようですしかし今回の自殺児童の親の言動に偏向した不公正な取り扱いは,やがて市議会からも説明要求があるでしょうし,その如何では,市議会に調査委員会経費支出を否認されかねず,市長の和解条件(恐らくはある程度の支出を伴なう)も否認されかねません.

弁護士資格も経験も重ねた市長がいったん行った和解の意思表示は,当初は,事態の早期終結を願ったものとして理解できましたが,その市長が一転して事態解決の見通しをすっかり先送りしてしまったのは,いったい何故でしょう.それではまるで偏向した職権濫用ではありませんか.

それらによって,何よりも,長期に亘って,イジメ児童のみならず,傍観児童,垣間見児童等多数の児童を,本来,外部に漏れないと考えて記入したアンケートを基に,入れ替わり立ち替りの調査,聴取にさらして,不安な心理状態に据え置くことのそれぞれの児童の一生に亘る大きな大きなマイナス面を考えると,膨らみ続ける大人達関係者のエゴイズムとスタンドプレイに,たいへん心が痛みます.

終わりに,念のためいいたいことは自分の息子の自殺を止められなかった親が,懸命になって演出しようとしているいわば「復讐劇」のステージに,マスコミ報道後から関与してきた市長,滋賀県警,調査委員会は,過去の経験にとらわれず,決して乗るべきではないということです.
過去の出来事への復讐は,将来に向かって何ものも生み出すものではないからです.

これまでの経緯で既に必要以上に心を傷つけられてきた児童のさらなる犠牲は,もう誰も望むところではないというべきではないでしょうか.

なお,アメリカでは,常時,約1000人の教師が担任を外されて,待機中だといわれていること,他方では,約16万人もの児童がいじめを回避すべく通学を控えていること,を付言しておきます.

日本でも.もっともっとイジメを避ける怠学が増えれば,マスコミの無責任な特定児童問題の巨大化以上に,学校,教育委員会,文部科学省に,いっそう真剣な対応を迫ることになるのではないでしょうか
日本で怠学の増大が見られないのは,自殺志向に近づいた児童の親の学校任せから来る不注意,無関心からではないでしょうか.今回の大津市の事例が,全国的に,学童の親の児童への関心の向上に役立てば,一抹の救いになるのではないでしょうか.
そのためには,文部科学省が,学校は決して安全なところではないと,アメリカのように警告を発したら良いのではないでしょうか.
イジメ問題でいたずらに学校や学童を萎縮させるより,もっと親に責任を持たせた方が,問題の緩和と学園の自由闊達な雰囲気の助長に大きく寄与すると考えるモノです.

付言しますと,市長やマスコミから一方的に批判されてきた教育長が,他県から来た大学生の無分別な一撃に大怪我をされたことは,まことにお気の毒なことです.
ここまで,児童自殺の一因に止まる問題を一方的な悪玉vs善玉の構図として不必要に巨大化させてしまった関係者に,大いなる反省を求めたいと考えます.

 

 

Should bullies be treated as criminals?

 

What can be done?

Recent federal statistics show that school has never been a safer place but that bullying remains a persistent problem: The U.S. Department of Education's most recent school crime and safety survey showed that from 2005 to 2009, 28% of middle- and high-school students reported having been bullied in school, and 6% said they were victims of cyberbullying, even as the number of students who said they'd been victims of theft or violent crime dropped. About one in 16 students surveyed said he or she was bullied at school "almost every day." Among seventh-graders, nearly one in 10 was bullied every day.

As in many bullying cases, Phoebe's suicide raised questions about how effective her school had been in keeping her safe. In the fall of 2009, Phoebe, a recent immigrant from Ireland, and her mother talked to school counselors about Phoebe's bullying difficulties in Ireland.

Rosalind Wiseman, the author of the 2002 book Queen Bees & Wannabes, a bestseller about teen girls' relationships that was the basis of the movie Mean Girls, said the district attorney in Phoebe's case "chose very carefully" how she charged the teens. "What I wish she had done was hold the adults responsible."

Wiseman met with teens at Phoebe's school after the suicide and found that quite a few "were really jaded" about the case. "Certainly the adults created the culture in which (bullying) was allowed to thrive." A consultant to schools trying to address bullying, Wiseman said students often tell her that administrators turn a blind eye to complaints if eyewitnesses aren't present. She regularly meets parents who "get crazy-angry" because their kids' bullying complaints go unheeded.

"They feel like they're sending their child into a system that's supposed to keep them safe, but it's actually the biggest risk to their child's safety," she said.

Though Phoebe's case didn't send anyone to prison, it had the intended effect, said Cole, the Massachusetts attorney. None of the six students returned to the school. The case "definitely acts as a deterrent to others." Cole and other civil rights experts worry about dragging too many young people into court, but he says, "There absolutely are times when you need to get the criminal justice system involved."

K.J.'s mother, Jeannie Chambers, isn't so sure. Though police and the county prosecutor won't talk about the case, Chambers says she doubts anyone will be charged. In fact, she told police she didn't want anyone going to jail for K.J.'s death. "I just didn't want somebody else's family to suffer," she said Monday.

Four classmates were disciplined for anti-gay bullying directed at K.J. before his death. Chambers said that she believes their behavior directly contributed to his suicide but that the four have already been subjected to withering criticism from classmates. Chambers told police she hoped the students received counseling, not jail time. "I didn't want somebody else to — how do I say it? — go through what my son went through."

Echoing Hall's proposed legislation, Chambers said parents need to be held accountable for their children's hateful behavior. "A lot of people don't understand: These kids learned it from home."

 


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Bullying(いじめ) And Suicide(自殺): The Dangerous Mistake We Make [Social Policy]

滋賀県大津市の中学2年生の飛び降り自殺事件が,大きな関心を呼んでいますが,私も,London School of Economics (LSE)で,David V. Donnison 教授のTutorial を受けた時に,Donnison 教授の著書”The Neglected Child and the Social Servoces" が話題になった事を思い出しています.

その著書からしますと,Bullying(いじめ)の場合,いじめた側の問題はもちろんですが,まず,何故,児童の両親や担任教師が児童の異常に事前に気づいてあげられなかったのだろうという疑念が沸きます.

そうした内面の問題は,近い人には打ち明けにくいという事情は分かります.そして,残念ながら日本に今欠けているのは,日本語の「民間」や「NPO」では表せない伝統あるNeglect 関連のVoluntary Organization が欠落している事だと思われてなりません.

欧米でもbullying の問題はきわめて古くからの問題で,bullying に一因がアル自殺件数は,下記の通り,日本よりはるかに大きな数字です.(日本では隠されているのでしょうが...)また,毎年のように起こる欧米の大学その他での銃乱射事件の背景には,多くは現場で射殺されてしまうので断定的にはいえませんが,なかには10~20歳時のbullying への報復のケースがあったといわれています.

しかし,私がいいたいのは,自殺の背景,原因はストレートにbullying に帰せられるほど単純なものではないだろうということです.世界的に自殺予防のシステム整備が進められている中で,物事を単純化した報道はマイナスの側面を持つと思うのです.
現在のような日本のマスコミの状況では,私が何か発言すると叩かれそうですから,ここでは,もっぱら引用文にそのまま語らせることにします.

mental health professionals and those who work in suicide prevention say bullying-related suicides that reach the spotlight are painted far too simplistically. Bullying and suicide can indeed be connected, though the relationship between the two is much more complicated than a tabloid headline might suggest. To imply clear-cut lines of cause and effect, many experts maintain, is misleading and potentially damaging as it ignores key underlying mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety.

failing to look at the other contributing factors, from depression to family life to the ending of a relationship, is problematic and even perilous from a suicide prevention standpoint. "I am very concerned about the narrative that these stories collectively are writing, which is that suicide is a normal, understandable response to this terrible [bullying] behavior," said Haas. "In suicide prevention, we tend to favor the explanation that there are multiple causes."

It's so much harder to look at the person you loved so much and ask, what was going on inside him


The statistics on bullying and suicide are alarming:

 

  • Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people, resulting in about 4,400 deaths per year, according to the CDC. For every suicide among young people, there are at least 100 suicide attempts. Over 14 percent of high school students have considered suicide, and almost 7 percent have attempted it.
  • Bully victims are between 2 to 9 times more likely to consider suicide than non-victims, according to studies by Yale University
  • A study in Britain found that at least half of suicides among young people are related to bullying
  • 10 to 14 year old girls may be at even higher risk for suicide, according to the study above
  • According to statistics reported by ABC News, nearly 30 percent of students are either bullies or victims of bullying, and 160,000 kids stay home from school every day because of fear of bullying

 

Bully-related suicide can be connected to any type of bullying, including physical bullying, emotional bullying, cyberbullying, and sexting, or circulating suggestive or nude photos or messages about a person.

 

 

 

Bullying And Suicide: The Dangerous Mistake We Make

Each of these tragedies mobilized a cultural army of anti-bullying advocates, celebrities, the media and policymakers who have said -- or at least strongly implied -- that bullying can lead to suicide.

But mental health professionals and those who work in suicide prevention say bullying-related suicides that reach the spotlight are painted far too simplistically. Bullying and suicide can indeed be connected, though the relationship between the two is much more complicated than a tabloid headline might suggest. To imply clear-cut lines of cause and effect, many experts maintain, is misleading and potentially damaging as it ignores key underlying mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety.

"Bullying is at the top of our consciousness that we're bending over backwards to get it into the story," said Ann Haas, a senior project specialist with the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. "Years and years of research has taught us that the overwhelming number of people who die by suicide had a diagnosable mental disorder at the time of their death."

Haas argues that failing to look at the other contributing factors, from depression to family life to the ending of a relationship, is problematic and even perilous from a suicide prevention standpoint. "I am very concerned about the narrative that these stories collectively are writing, which is that suicide is a normal, understandable response to this terrible [bullying] behavior," said Haas. "In suicide prevention, we tend to favor the explanation that there are multiple causes."

Lidia Bernik, an associate project director with National Suicide Prevention Lifeline, said that people often seek a simple explanation when something as difficult to understand as suicide occurs. "I speak from personal experience," she said. "I lost my sister to suicide. You're left with, 'Why did this happen?'"

Bullying can offer an answer, she said: "It's almost easier to understand -- someone was victimized, and then they killed themselves."

Nicole Cardarelli, 27, who works in state advocacy outreach for the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, admits that for years after her brother Greg's suicide in 2004, she also blamed bullying. While in high school, Greg began what he thought was a relationship with a girl he met online in a Ford Thunderbird car club. It turned out that two of his friends were behind the fake account. After several months, the boys exposed the prank to Greg. Hours later, he killed himself. His family opted not to press charges but they couldn't help placing blame when Greg had named what the boys did in his suicide note as the reason he could no longer go on living.

"If you had asked me after Greg died what I wanted to have happen, I probably would have said I want to kill those boys," said Cardarelli. "It's so much harder to look at the person you loved so much and ask, what was going on inside him?"

At the time, Cardarelli didn't see the signs that Greg was troubled, she recalled. But in the subsequent years, she has thought about his behavior a few months before he died. He had lost interest in baseball and Boy Scouts -- two activities he'd been involved with for years. He was sleeping more than usual, pulling away from his family and spending a lot of time on his computer. Cardarelli even remembers a conversation where her mother told her she thought there might be something really wrong with Greg.

"I believe that he was depressed," she said recently.

Just as that suicide may have been more complicated than Cardarelli initially thought, several high-profile cases have exhibited similar, deeper patterns upon further investigation.

Emily Bazelon's 2010 article for Slate exploring the suicide of Phoebe Prince, the teen from Ireland, serves as a powerful example of what can be learned when a suicide is examined more closely. There's no doubt that Prince endured cruel treatment from a group of classmates, but Bazelon reported that Prince had attempted suicide in the past, that she'd gone off antidepressants, and that she frequently cut herself. (In December, Bazelon followed up on the Prince case by reporting that Prince's family members had reached a settlement with the town of South Hadley, Mass., for $225,000.)

The death of Staten Island teen Amanda Cummings, whose family primarily blamed bullying for her death, is proving to be less straight-forward as well. The NYPD has yet to find any evidence of bullying, and she was reportedly devastated over the end of a relationship with an older boy.

Last week, the New Yorker revisited the Clementi case at Rutgers from 2010 and offered a more nuanced view of the tragedy. News stories initially reported that Clementi was outed by his roommate, and that the video of him with another man was posted to the Internet, neither of which is true.

According to the New Yorker, Clementi came out to family members three days before he started at Rutgers -- he told a friend his mother didn't respond well -- and he attended a meeting of the school's Bisexual, Gay, and Lesbian Alliance. Documents found on Clementi's computer, the piece reported, were titled "sorry" and "Why is everything so painful." He had told a friend, "I would consider myself out if only there was someone for me to come out to." His roommate's actions were reprehensible, and they may have contributed to Clementi's death, but these new details suggest the possibility of a far more complex situation.

Even though suicides often prove to involve multiple factors, most experts are still quick to add that bullying can aggravate depression and increase suicide risk, and its seriousness shouldn't be minimized.

Clayton Cook, a professor of educational psychology at the University of Washington, argues that because mental health issues are often a common thread running through bullying and suicide, schools should not have a narrowly-focused solution.

"The idea is that if you adopt a broad spectrum approach to preventing mental health problems, that you're also going to reduce the bullying," said Cook. "If you look at the scientific literature, bullying prevention programs haven't shown to be effective. It's addressing the symptom and not the cause." Cook suggests teachers adopt a social emotional learning curriculum as they would a reading curriculum. "We'd teach kids how to exhibit care and concern for others, how to manage their emotions before they get the best of them," Cook explained.

The good news, according to Cook, is that the prevalence of bullying has likely been overstated. Catherine Bradshaw, deputy director of the Center for the Prevention of Youth Violence at Johns Hopkins, agrees. "We don't have data to show that bullying is an epidemic or that it's increasing," she said.

The Centers for Disease Control's bullying task force, of which Cook and Bradshaw are members, is working to establish a uniform definition of bullying for research purposes, but results may not be available until this summer. The task force is treating bullying as a public health concern and developing policy-based solutions.

As far as the prevalence of youth suicide goes, the most recent numbers from the CDC show that, among 15 to 19 year-olds, suicides fell marginally from 8.02 per 100,000 in 2000 to 7.79 per 100,00 in 2009. Those numbers have fluctuated in the years between though, and the 10-year low was in 2007.

"We don't know about 2009 to 2011," said Madelyn Gould, a professor of clinical epidemiology in psychiatry at Columbia who studies youth suicide and prevention efforts. "But probably, the accessibility of the Internet has made it such that there are many more stories about suicide, not necessarily more suicides." Since January of 2010, the words bullying and suicide have appeared together in 592 articles -- and that's only print newspapers.

"I would just hope that these stories also talk about the other risks involved with suicidal behavior," said Gould. "If someone is being bullied, they should not jump to the conclusion that one of [their] options is suicide. What they should jump to is, one of the options I have is to get help."

Megan Meier killed herself in 2006 after a cruel MySpace prank orchestrated by an adult neighbor. Her mother, Tina Meier, argues that the pros of linking bullying and suicide still outweigh the cons. "I think since Megan's story there has been a lot more awareness," she explained. "Before, everybody was kind of like, 'Okay, well kids get bullied and we'll deal with it.' We didn't realize the impact that it truly has."

Young people may not be able to avoid exposure to bullying or suicide, but David Litts, an associate director with the Suicide Prevention Resource Center, said parents should take these tragic stories as an opportunity to talk to their children, especially if already concerned.

"You really need to open up the dialogue in a way that he or she can risk being honest," said Litts. "To look someone in the eye and say, 'Yes, I want to kill myself,' is a hard thing to do. So it's important that whoever asks the question asks it in a way that conveys they're ready to hear an honest answer."

Need help? In the U.S., call 1-800-273-8255 for the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline.You can also visit The Trevor Project's website, a national organization providing support to LGBT youth, or call them at 1-866-488-7386. And if you're worried about a friend on Facebook, you can report troubling posts. They'll connect your friend with a representative from National Suicide Prevention Lifeline.

 

 

 

 

Some of the warning signs of suicide can include:

 

  • Showing signs of depression, like ongoing sadness, withdrawal from others, losing interest in favorite activities, or trouble sleeping or eating
  • Talking about or showing an interest in death or dying
  • Engaging in dangerous or harmful activities, including reckless behavior, substance abuse, or self injury
  • Giving away favorite possessions and saying goodbye to people
  • Saying or expressing that they can't handle things anymore
  • Making comments that things would be better without them

If a person is displaying these symptoms, talk to them about your concerns and get them help right away, such as from a counselor, doctor, or at the emergency room.

 

In some cases, it may not be obvious that a teen is thinking about suicide, such as when the suicide seems to be triggered by a particularly bad episode of bullying. In several cases where bullying victims killed themselves, bullies had told the teen that he or she should kill him or herself or that the world would be better without them. Others who hear these types of statements should be quick to stop them and explain to the victim that the bully is wrong.

 

Other ways to help people who may be considering suicide include:

 

  • Take all talk or threats of suicide seriously. Don't tell the person they are wrong or that they have a lot to live for. Instead, get them immediate medical help.
  • Keep weapons and medications away from anyone who is at risk for suicide. Get these items out of the house or at least securely locked up.
  • Parents should encourage their teens to talk about bullying that takes place. It may be embarrassing for kids to admit they are the victims of bullying, and most kids don't want to admit they have been involved in bullying. Tell victims that it's not their fault that they are being bullied and show them love and support. Get them professional help if the bullying is serious.
  • It is a good idea for parents to insist on being included in their children's friends on social networking sites so they can see if someone has posted mean messages about them online. Text messages may be more difficult to know about, so parents should try to keep open communications with their children about bullying.
  • Parents who see a serious bullying problem should talk to school authorities about it, and perhaps arrange a meeting with the bully's parents. More states are implementing laws against bullying, and recent lawsuits against schools and criminal charges against bullies show that there are legal avenues to take to deal with bullies. If school authorities don't help with an ongoing bullying problem, local police or attorneys may be able to.

 

People who are thinking about suicide should talk to someone right away or go to an emergency room. They can also call a free suicide hotline, such as 1-800-273-TALK (8255).

 

Friends and relatives of suicide victims also need to find someone to talk to as they grieve, especially if they are suffering from depression or suicidal thoughts themselves.

 

 

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予想を上回って人口増加したEngland&Wales [Social Policy]

イギリスの10年に1度の国勢調査結果が公表され,イギリス(ここでは,England & Wales  のみで,独立性の高いScotland & Northern Ireland は含まない)の人口が自然増と移民を合わせて予想を上回って増大したことが判明しました.

日本は,「失われた20年」が物語るように経済的に停滞を続けており,そこに愚かな『人災』が加わり,かねてからの無用の資格障壁,たとえば世界に類例を見ない日本語による社会福祉士,介護福祉士国家試験制度などによって,日本への移民は韓国とほぼ並んで,世界最低の状態です.

日本の移民人口比率は1%台とOECD諸国の中で最低水準。最高はルクセンブルクの36.9%。英米仏独など主要国は11~12%という状態です.

この状態を放置して.人口の急速な高齢化を前提して「税と社会保障の一体改革」などを論ずるのは,まったく無為無策という他ありません.

それを実証したのが,今回のイギリスの国勢調査結果だといえます.

Data shows that from March 2001 to March 2011, there were 6.6 million births and five million deaths in England and Wales, leading to an increase in the population of 1.6 million.

The Office for National Statistics said this accounted for around 44% of the total increase in population size, with the remainder being due to migration.

とあるように,移民は人口の高齢化を抑制する若年齢化に大きく寄与するモノです.

日本では海外留学者も,海外からの留学者も減少していますが,政権交代後の政治家の無能振りは目に余るモノがあり,そこから改善する以外に何の展望も開けないでしょう.

それこそガラガラポンと政界再編成し,無能な労働厚生官僚も,その提灯持ちをしてきた欧米に例を見ない社会福祉学者も総入れ替えして,いったんゼロから再出発する以外に,近未来への展望は開けないのではないでしょうか.

 

 

England and Wales population up

A British crowd The population has grown by 7% in a decade, the Census showed

The population of England and Wales has reached 56.1 million, up by 3.7 million in a decade, the 2011 Census shows.

It is the largest growth shown by any census since they began in 1801.

The population in England was 53 million on 27 March 2011 when the census was taken, about 400,000 more than official estimates.

In Wales the population was 3.1 million. Around 55% of the 3.7m increase was attributed to net migration.

The census showed that the population for England and Wales was greater than official estimates rolled forward from 2001 - by just over 500,000.

Data shows that from March 2001 to March 2011, there were 6.6 million births and five million deaths in England and Wales, leading to an increase in the population of 1.6 million.

The Office for National Statistics said this accounted for around 44% of the total increase in population size, with the remainder being due to migration.

Population by age and sex, England and Wales, 2011

Population by age and sex, England and Wales, 2011

 

BBC home editor Mark Easton says the most likely reason for the discrepancy between the official estimate and the actual population is inaccurate migration data.

It is notable that the number of people in their 20s has risen from 6.6m to 7.6m - that additional one million people are most likely to be migrant workers, he adds.

The latest rise compares with a rise in population of 1.6 million between 1991 and 2001.

The population projections published by the ONS will be revised upwards in the autumn.

On the night of the census there were 23.4 million households in England and Wales, with the average household size being 2.4 people per household in 2011, just over half of the 4.3 residents per household 100 years earlier.

The 2011 Census also showed the average population density was 371 people per square kilometre; however, in London this figure was 5,200.

If the London figures were excluded, the average population density for the rest of England and Wales was 321 people per square kilometre, the ONS said.

All regions saw population growth between 2001 and 2011, with the highest growth in London, the East of England and the East Midlands.

Other population data showed:

 

There are almost half a million more people living in England and Wales than official estimates suggested. The most likely reason for that under-counting is inaccurate migration data.

It is notable that the number of people in their 20s has risen from 6.6m to 7.6m - the additional one million people are most likely to be migrant workers.

The increase in the number of under-fives by 400,000 is also a consequence of immigration, but increasing fertility among British-born women is the key driver in pushing up the fertility rate.

Half of the total increase in population was in London, the South-East and East regions of England.

The Office for National Statistics says that about 55% of the population increase was the result of net migration.

The population projections published by the ONS will be revised upwards in the autumn.

      there were almost a million more women than men in England and Wales -        27.6 million men v 28.5 million women

  • the median age of the population - where half the population is younger and half is older - in England and Wales was 39, with the median age for men being 38 and for women 40
  • there were 406,000 more under-five-year-olds than in 2001
  • one in six people in England and Wales in 2011 was aged 65 and over
  • the percentage of the population aged 65 and over was the highest seen in any census - at 16.4%
  • there were 430,000 residents aged 90 and over in 2011 compared with 340,000 in 2001 and 13,000 in 1911
  • Cardiff saw the greatest population rise of anywhere in Wales, growing by 12%

The public were asked questions about their jobs, health, education and ethnic background. It was the first time people could fill in the form online.

The form was compulsory, but a question about religion was optional. The answers are used to plan public services.

Three different censuses happened on the one day. Northern Ireland and Scotland each managed their own, and these were run separately from the one which was sent to 25.4 million households in England and Wales.

Northern Ireland's population rose to 1.81 million - the highest figure ever - according to its census.

The number of people increased by 7% over the last decade, broadly in line with the figure for England and Wales.

The just-published figures showed an increase in the proportion of elderly people and a decrease in the percentage of children under 16.

Figures for Scotland will be released later this year.

Graph

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国会事故調は何をいいたかったのか??? [Social Policy]

国会事故調が7月5日に最終報告書を出し,同時に英文の要約を公表して,黒川委員長が外国人記者クラブで90分に亘って質疑応答に答えたそうです.

それは,海外でまことに不評です.とりわけ,その結論が The disaster was "made in Japan." と, 「日本文化」に責任を押しつけたことにあります.

政府のカラ菅,枝野,海江田等の事態処理の責任を厳しく問い,東京電力TEPCOの責任も厳しく問い,
(1)2006年に提起されていた大地震と津波の予測にきちんと目を向けなかった責任を問い,
(2)事態発生後のカラ菅とTEPCO の無能振りも厳しく糾弾し,
(3)せっかくのSpeedi の放射能拡散地図,アメリカ空軍から提供された放射能拡散地図もいずれも住民の混乱を招くとして,長期に亘って公表されなかった無責任さを指摘しながら,

結局,そうした指揮命令系統の主客逆転を招いた日本文化に責任を帰したことに,海外の論評はたいへん物足りなさと不満を感じているようです.

But behind the safety missteps and lack of readiness for a tsunami in a region known for powerful earthquakes, are cultural traits that ensured the disaster was "made in Japan", Kurokawa said.

"Its fundamental causes," he wrote, "are to be found in the ingrained conventions of Japanese culture: our reflexive obedience; our reluctance to question authority; our devotion to 'sticking with the programme'; our groupism; and our insularity.

"What must be admitted – very painfully – is that this was a disaster 'Made in Japan'.

None of the agencies involved emerged with any credit. "The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was the result of collusion between the government, the regulators and Tepco, and the lack of governance by said parties,"

"Across the board, the commission found ignorance and arrogance unforgivable for anyone or any organisation that deals with nuclear power. We found a disregard for global trends and a disregard for public safety."

The 10-member commission is one of several panels investigating the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The report follows a six-month investigation involving more than 900 hours of hearings and interviews with more than 1,100 people.

私は,黒川委員会(国会調査委員会)が,畑村委員会(政府調査委員会)の中間報告で指摘したfail safe 機能(非常用復水器)についての東電の無知について懐疑的なことに疑問を感じた1人です.
1,100人の証言に依存した委員会ですが,ほとんど証言の裏付けを取っておらず,関係者間の矛盾点以上には確信を持って疑いを持つ能力,機能があったとは思えないからです.
3つの原子炉の検証を求めていますが,水蒸気爆発を起こし,メルトダウンした原子炉を復元して検証するなど明らかに不可能なことでしょう.

根本原因が「日本文化」=無責任体制にあったとしてしまっては,日本の自然科学力,技術力への世界的な信頼は雲散霧消して,われわれは長く,技術立国継承の道を閉ざされ,これまでの「失われた20年」は,容易に「失われた50年」になってしまうでしょう.

今月,23日までには政府調査委員会,畑村委員会の最終報告が出るはずですから,場合によって,もう一度ブログを書きたいと考えています.

それにしても,これだけ批判されたカラ菅も枝野も海江田も細野も,議員辞職する様子が全く見られないのは,残念ながら,まったく「日本文化」=無責任体制を実証して余りアルというべきでしょう.

  

  

Japanese cultural traits 'at heart of Fukushima disaster'

Report preface states that conventions such as insularity and a reluctance to question authority were partly to blame for incident

A satellite image of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant complex taken onWenesday 16th March 2011
A satellite image of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, which suffered a meltdown after the Japanese tsunami. Photograph: AP

Misplaced deference and other "ingrained conventions" of Japanese culture were at the heart of last year's meltdown at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, according to the chairman of an independent panel whose scathing report, released on Thursday, described the accident as a "profoundly man-made disaster".

In his combative preface to the report, Kiyoshi Kurokawa, a medical doctor and professor emeritus at Tokyo University, said the crisis was the result of "a multitude of errors and willful negligence", by the government, safety officials and the plant's operator, Tokyo Electric Power [Tepco].

But behind the safety missteps and lack of readiness for a tsunami in a region known for powerful earthquakes, are cultural traits that ensured the disaster was "made in Japan", Kurokawa said.

"Its fundamental causes," he wrote, "are to be found in the ingrained conventions of Japanese culture: our reflexive obedience; our reluctance to question authority; our devotion to 'sticking with the programme'; our groupism; and our insularity.

"What must be admitted – very painfully – is that this was a disaster 'Made in Japan'.

"Had other Japanese been in the shoes of those who bear responsibility for this accident, the result may well have been the same."

None of the agencies involved emerged with any credit. "The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was the result of collusion between the government, the regulators and Tepco, and the lack of governance by said parties," said the report, compiled by the Fukushima nuclear accident independent investigation commission.

"They effectively betrayed the nation's right to be safe from nuclear accidents. Therefore, we conclude that the accident was clearly 'man-made'."

The panel's report, one of three major investigations into the accident, challenged claims by Tepco that the triple meltdown at the plant in north-east Japan had been caused solely by a 14-metre tsunami on 11 March last year.

The panel said the magnitude-9 earthquake that preceded the waves could not be ruled out as a cause of the accident.

It accused Tepco and regulators at the nuclear and industrial safety agency of failing to take adequate safety measures, despite evidence that the area was susceptible to powerful earthquakes and tsunamis.

"We believe that the root causes were the organisational and regulatory systems that supported faulty rationales for decisions and actions, rather than issues relating to the competency of any specific individual," it said.

"Across the board, the commission found ignorance and arrogance unforgivable for anyone or any organisation that deals with nuclear power. We found a disregard for global trends and a disregard for public safety."

The 641-page report was published on the same day a nuclear reactor in western Japan became the first to produce electricity since the accident. All of the country's 50 functioning reactors had been switched off after the crisis to undergo safety checks.

Japan, which once depended on nuclear power for about a third of its energy supply, was briefly without atomic power for the first time in more than 40 years after the last reactor went offline in early May.

The No 3 reactor at Oi nuclear power plant in Fukui prefecture is the first to be restarted after passing stress tests that the government introduced last year to ease public concerns over safety.

The government approved the restart of reactors 3 and 4 at Oi amid warnings that without them a large area of western Japan, including the industrial city of Osaka, could face power shortages this summer.

The No 3 reactor should reach full capacity by 10 July, the plant's operator, Kansai Electric Power (Kepco), said, while the second unit will begin producing electricity towards the end of the month. The last of the plant's 11 reactors were switched off in February.

Thousands of demonstrators have gathered outside the prime minister's office every Friday evening to protest against the restart, while polls show a majority of Japanese want the government to phase out nuclear power.

"We have made a step toward the safe and stable supply of electricity by being able to deliver nuclear-generated electricity for the first time in four and a half months," Kepco's president, Makoto Yagi, said in a statement.

While not unexpected, the critical tone of Thursday's report contrasts with a similar investigation by Tepco in which the utility insisted it had acted appropriately in the wake of a natural disaster it claimed it could never have predicted.

Tepco has always maintained that the damage to four of Fukushima Daiichi's reactors was caused by the tsunami, which knocked out cooling apparatus and prompted a core meltdown in three of the units.

More than 15 months later, the plant has been brought to a safe state known as "cold shutdown," although concerns have been voiced about the state of a pool containing spent fuel rods in reactor No 4.

Thursday's report called for an investigation into the role the earthquake played in the accident. "As for direct cause of the accident, the commission reached the conclusion that we cannot definitely say any devices that were important for safety were not damaged by the earthquake," it said.

"We cannot rule out the possibility that a small-scale LOCA (loss-of-coolant accident) occurred at the reactor No 1 in particular."

The panel was also critical of Naoto Kan, the prime minister at the time of the accident, whose "direct intervention" in the early days of the crisis had caused confusion in the chain of command and wasted valuable time.

Kan said he decided to intervene in the emergency response because Tepco and safety officials appeared incapable of doing so.

The parliamentary panel said there was no evidence, however, to support Kan's claim that Tepco was preparing to withdraw all of its workers from the plant in the immediate aftermath of the accident.

But it accused Tepco of ignoring warnings going as far back as 2006 that a tsunami could cause a blackout at the plant.

The firm, regulators and the government had "failed to correctly develop the most basic safety requirements, such as assessing the probability of damage, preparing for containing collateral damage from such a disaster, and developing evacuation plans for the public in the case of a serious radiation release", it said.

"Since 2006, the regulators and Tepco were aware of the risk that a total outage of electricity at the Fukushima Daiichi plant might occur if a tsunami were to reach the level of the site."

The 10-member commission is one of several panels investigating the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The report follows a six-month investigation involving more than 900 hours of hearings and interviews with more than 1,100 people.


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