ここでは，Big Society という理想郷を，From Edmund Burke and Adam Smith in the 18th century, from Hegel and de Tocqueville in the 19th, to Hayek and Oakeshott in the 20th – all have been clear that individual freedom is only half the story.
Tradition, community, family, faith, the space between the market and the state – this is the ground where our philosophy is planted. と，上記の3世紀にわたる大御所を引用して，主張を正当化しています．
Reward and effortの節では，イギリスのSocial benefits の矛盾点を列記していますから，Universal Credit のご参考までにご一覧下さい．
But it’s the second aspect of building a bigger, stronger society that I want to focus my remarks on today, and that is the challenge of creating a culture of responsibility in our country.
Some say it sounds too much like a theoretical concept that’s hard to define and others complain that it just sounds like a burden on people: an obligatory thing we have to do.
Responsibility is people doing the right thing – by themselves and each other.
It is the essential quality of the good society – of a strong society.
That’s not theory – it’s fact.
And yes it is a “burden” in that it requires commitment, but it is one that we should actively want to undertake.
The problem today is that a culture of responsibility is too often absent in our country.
And we need to restore it. Of course, this has to come from people.
But government has a vital role to play – and we’re playing it.
To begin with, government has to send out the right signals.
Reward and effort
First and foremost that means making sure that reward is linked to effort.
Marginal rates of taxation that have punished single mothers who want to work.
A benefit system that has paid couples to live apart.
A social care system that all too often has penalised those who have worked hard and saved hard by forcing them to sell their home.
A welfare system that has paid people who had no intention of getting a job to stay at home.
We can’t be surprised that people behave irresponsibly if government is sending out these signals.
But bit by bit we are turning the tables on these perverse signals, and making sure reward really is linked to effort, that responsibility is rewarded, not punished.
Nowhere is this more evident than in our welfare reforms.
For that single mother who wants to work – we are making sure work pays.
And for that person intent on ripping off the system, we are saying – we will not let you live off the hard work of others.
In short we’re building a system that matches effort with reward…
…instead of a system that rewards those who make no effort.
That is a vital step in building a more responsible society in Britain.
Taking responsibility for your family
But responsibility isn’t just about what you get from the state, it’s about what you give to society too.
I mean all those aspects of life that fall outside our dealings with the state, or with the market.
I mean family. I mean community.
Let’s start with the family.
Now I have always made it clear what I think about the family.
I think families are immensely important.
I am pro-commitment, I back marriage and I think it’s a wonderfully precious institution.
Strong families are where children learn to become responsible people.
When you grow up in a strong family, you learn how to behave, you learn about give and take.
You learn about responsibility and how to live in harmony with others.
Strong families are the foundation of a bigger, stronger society.
There’s a whole body of evidence that shows how a bad relationship between parents means a child is more likely to live in poverty, fail at school, end up in prison or be unemployed in later life.
Don’t think that I’ve forgotten about our pledge to make this country the most family-friendly in Europe.
We’ve commissioned and received excellent reports from Frank Field and Graham Allen, and are acting on their recommendations.
Unlike the last government that focused almost exclusively on children, we have had the courage to say loud and clear that if you want what is best for children you have to address not just children but families and relationships too.
And we are thinking creatively about how we can do more to support family life and to ensure that every child grows up in a stable, loving home.
It is an agenda to strengthen what I believe is the single most important institution in the country, and it’s a vital part of building the Big Society.
Taking responsibility for your community
But responsibility extends beyond the family to the wider community too.
We are not just responsible for those we know and love.
We have obligations to those beyond our front door, beyond our street.
In part that’s about how people behave and the respect they show towards their fellow citizens.
It’s about getting involved.
The basic premise is that if everyone gives a little of themselves, the benefits for the whole of society can be enormous.
That’s a big part of the Big Society.
In the Localism Bill, we’re changing the planning rules to give people real influence over what gets built in their area, devolving power to executive mayors in our major cities and giving people the right to take over local assets.
So if a local service you rely on is threatened with closure, you’re no longer powerless to act because a new “Community Right to Buy” gives local people the chance to save a valued local resource – be it a pub, village shop or leisure centre.
This sets out how we are going to encourage a stronger culture of giving in Britain – with more people giving more money and more time to good causes around us.
Second, we’re going to make giving more attractive
And in areas of deprivation, we are matching the commitment people make to giving with government support.
Our Community First scheme will reward groups that come together to improve their neighbourhood, by matching the time they give with money.
Third, we’re going to drive a real culture change in our society by making giving more of a social norm.
For young people we are introducing National Citizen Service, with over 10,000 16 year olds currently being recruited to take part in the first wave this summer.
With employers, as part of Every Business Commits, we will launch a major new campaign to promote payroll giving.
In America around a third of employees already do this. In the UK it’s only around 3 per cent. We want that to be a lot higher.
Already there are great examples of businesses backing volunteering. There are also the great media campaigns, often involving staff, presenters and journalists.
As part of our efforts to celebrate giving to society, my Big Society Awards have been created to recognise outstanding examples of innovation and commitment in social action, community leadership and public service reform.
And there’s something else we’re doing to make giving more of a social norm.
And when I say we – I mean literally we – the Cabinet.
We’re all giving at least a day a year volunteering.
And we’re encouraging all our civil servants to do the same.
Approach to policy
But there’s something else our civil servants are going to be doing – and it’s the final point I want to make today.
For too long, government policy has been made without enough understanding of the things I’ve been talking about today – family, community, relationships.
Government has ignored the fact that at heart, as the American writer David Brooks eloquently points out in his new book – we are social animals.
Social problems need social solutions.
And in a way that I don’t think has been sufficiently appreciated, we are bringing that insight right into the heart of the business of government.
Right across Whitehall we are today applying to the design of policy the best that science teaches us about how people behave – and what drives their well-being.
We are revising the ‘Green Book’ – the basis on which the Government assesses the costs and benefits of different policies – to fully take account of their social impact.
We are developing a new test for all policies – that they should demonstrate not just how they help reduce public spending and cut regulation and bureaucracy – but how they create social value too.
And, the Office for National Statistics is developing new independent measures of well-being so that by the end of the year, we will be the first developed country in the world that is able rigorously to measure progress on more than just GDP.
Taken together, these may be the most quietly radical things this government is doing.
These are big changes, and they all show how serious I am about building a bigger, stronger society.
In the past, the left focused on the state and the right focused on the market.
We’re harnessing that space in between – society – the ‘hidden wealth’ of our nation.
The idea that the centre right is simply about the philosophy of individualism – of personal and commercial freedom – is a travesty of our tradition.
From Edmund Burke and Adam Smith in the 18th century, from Hegel and de Tocqueville in the 19th, to Hayek and Oakeshott in the 20th – all have been clear that individual freedom is only half the story.
Tradition, community, family, faith, the space between the market and the state – this is the ground where our philosophy is planted.
The things I’ve spoken about today – modernising public services, rebuilding responsibility, strengthening family and community all this represents a massive cultural change.
But if we get it right, it will not just benefit our society, it will benefit our economy too.
If we link effort to reward, if we encourage people to step forward and play their part, we won’t just make our society fairer and more cohesive, we will create the conditions for a more aspirational, entrepreneurial culture.
A country of do-ers and go-getters, where people feel they are in control of their destiny, where they trust those around them, and where they have the power to transform their lives, where nothing will stop them from pursuing their dreams.
That’s the culture we need in our economy as much as our society.
So is this government about more than cuts? Yes.
Is the Big Society some optional extra? No.
It holds the key to transforming our economy, our society, our country’s future and that’s why I will keep on championing it and keep on building it, every day that I have the privilege to lead this country.